Q. 1. Write down any one merit of Federal Government.
Ans. The administrator of a federal type of state is always very efficient.
Q. 2. Write down any one demerit of Federal Government.
Ans. A Federal type of government is weak in the conduct of internal as well as external affairs.
Q. 3. In which articles it is mentioned that India will be ‘Union of States’?
Ans. Article 1 of the Indian Constitution.
Q. 4. Name the first country where federation was established?
Ans. United States of America.
Q. 5. Mention the names of four countries where federation exist?
Ans. India, U.S.A., Switzerland and Canada.
Q. 6. Write one basic feature of federation.
Ans. Division of powers between the Centre and the States.
Q. 7. Which article gives special status to Jammu & Kashmir?
Ans. Article 370.
Q. 8. From which country we have taken the idea of ‘Union of States’?
Q. 9. Who is the guardian of Indian federation?
Ans. The Supreme Court.
Q. 10. What is federalism?
Ans. Federal government is an agreement between the Centre and the states and the conditions of the agreement are written into the Constitution.
Q. 11. Write four essential features of federation.
Ans. 1. Written Constitution.
2. Supremacy of the Constitution.
3. Distribution of Powers between the Centre and the States.
4. Bicameral Legislature.
Q. 12. Mention two features of Indian Federalism.
Ans. 1. The Indian Constitution is a written and rigid one.
2. Powers between the Centre and the states have been divided by the Constitution.
Q. 13. How many subjects are in the State list? Mention the names of two state subjects.
Ans. There are 66 subjects in the State list. These subjects can be legislated upon by the states. Main state subjects are police, jails, law and order, agriculture, public health, etc.
Q. 14. How many subjects are in the Union List? Mention the name of two union subjects.
Ans. There are 97 subjects in Union list. Only the Union government can make laws on these subjects. The main subjects are: Railway, Post and Telegraph, Coinage and Currency, Defence and Foreign Affairs, etc.
Q. 15. Write two demerits of federal form of government.
Ans. 1. Weak Government. A federal type of government is weak in the conduct of internal as well as external affairs.
2. Threat to National Unity. In a federation there is always a threat to national unity. People generally are more loyal to their units (Provinces) than to the country.
Q. 16. Define Federation.
Ans. 1. According to Hamilton, “Federation is an association of states that form new ones.”
2. According to Jellinack, “A federal state is a sovereign state formed out of several states.”
3. According to Montesquieu, “Federal government is a convention by which several similar states agree to become members of a large one.”
Q. 17. Write four main differences between Indian Federation and American Federation.
Ans. Federal government has its origin in the U.S.A. In India, federation was adopted after independence. Following are the main differences between Indian federation and American federation.
1. In the U.S.A., centre is the creation of states, whereas in India states are the creation of Centre.
2. In American Constitution, the word ‘federation’ is used, whereas in Article 1 India is described as Union of States.
3. Under American federation, more powers are given to states but in India, centre is powerful.
4. In the U.S.A., residuary powers are with the states, whereas in India residuary powers are given to the centre.
Q. 18. Write the distribution of powers in Indian Federalism.
Ans. The Constitution of India very clearly distributes the power between the Centre and the states.
There are three lists of powers between the Centre and the states, given in the Constitution:
1. The Union List. There are 97 subjects in the Union list. Only the Union government can make laws on these subjects. The main subjects are — Railways, Post and Telegraph, Coinage and Currency, Defence, and Foreign Affairs.
2. The State List. There are 66 subjects in this list. The state government can make laws on them. The main subjects are — law and order, police, agriculture, irrigation and public works.
3. The Concurrent List. There are 47 subjects in the Concurrent list. On these subjects both the Centre and the states can make laws. But if two laws are contradictory, the laws of the Centre will prevail.
4. Residuary Powers have given to the centre by the Constitution.
Q. 19. Why we need a strong Centre? Give reasons.
Ans. 1. Need of strong Centre to face the different problems of the country. When Indian Constitution was being prepared, the country was facing many problems such as communal riots, Kashmir problem, problem of refugees, economic problems, etc. Only strong Centre could solve all these problems. Hence, a strong Centre was established.
2. Strong Centre needed to face the external aggression. Our founding fathers were aware of the fact that Pakistan may create problems by creating disturbances in the state if a weak Centre is established.
It was felt that only a strong Centre can meet the external foes. The centre must be very powerful to meet any invasion successfully.
3. Responsibility of the Centre to defend and protect every part of the country. It is the responsibility of the Centre to defend and protect every part of India. To meet all these needs, it is essential that the Centre should be made very powerful.
4. Communalism. To curb communalism strong centre was needed.