Q. 1. Why is health the key area of human development?
Ans. Health is the key area of human development and healthy people are capable of using all the resources and create wealth out of them.
Q. 2. Which country has proclaimed ‘Gross National Happiness’ as the measure of a country’s progress?
Q. 3. Which is the most significant aspect of human development?
Ans. Leading a long and healthy life, being able to gain knowledge and having enough means to be able to live a decent life are the most important aspects of human development.
Q. 4. Who introduced the concept of human development?
Ans. The concept of human development was introduced by Dr. Mahbub-ul-Haq.
Q. 5. Mention any two-key areas of measuring ‘human development’.
Ans. (i) Health
Q. 6. Differentiate between growth and development.
Ans. Growth is quantitative, whereas development is qualitative / Growth is value neutral, whereas development is value positive / Growth may be positive or negative, whereas development will always be positive.
Q. 7. Name the two South-Asian economists , who have worked together on ‘Human Development Report’.
Ans. Dr. Mahbub-ul-Haq and Amartya Sen.
Q. 8. What is the difference between the growth and development?
Ans. Growth is a narrower concept than development. The difference is that growth is quantitative and value neutral. It may have a positive or a negative sign. This means that the change may be either positive (showing an increase) or negative (indicating a decrease).
Development means a qualitative change which is always value positive. This means that development cannot take place unless there is an increment or addition to the existing conditions. Development occurs when positive growth takes place.
On the other hand, growth can be measured by an increase in a country’s GDP. Growth is necessary but not sufficient condition for development.
Q. 9. Explain the key areas of human development.
What are the three basic areas of human development?
Ans. The key areas are :
(i) Access to resources
Detailed Answer :
(i) Access to resources : Equal access to all resources available helps in human development. Individuals should be able to use them, and benefit from all the specific available resources be it material, financial.
(ii) Health : Individuals should have easy and timely access to health services at all times.
(iii) Education : Free and fair education to all without any disparity. Education makes people aware of their rights and duties and plays an important role in human development.
Q. 10. “A meaningful life is just not a long one, it must be purposeful”. Support the statement with any three suitable arguments.
Ans. “A meaningful life is just not a long one, it must be purposeful”. This refers to the fact that people should be happy, healthy, be able to develop some talent, be productive towards the society and free to achieve their goals. The concept of human development was introduced by Dr. Mahbub -ulHaq. Dr. Haq has described human development as development that enlarges people’s choices, improves their lives and widens their level of well -being.
For example, an uneducated child cannot make the choice to be a doctor because his/her choice has got limited by lack of education. Similarly, very often poor people cannot choose to take medical treatment for disease because their choice is very limited by their lack of resources. In India, a large number of women and people belonging to socially and economically backward groups drop out of school. This shows how the choices of these groups get limited by not having access to knowledge. Therefore, access to resources, health and education are the key areas in human development.
Q. 11. Define the term “Empowerment”.
Ans. Empowerment means to have the power to make choices and such power comes from increasing freedom and capability.
Q. 12. Why is it essential to have sustainability?
Ans. Sustainability is essential to have sustainable human development for each generation in respect of continuity and availability of opportunities.
Q. 13. Mention any two pillars of human development.
Ans. Equity, Sustainability, Productivity and Empowerment.
Q. 14. Explain the basic needs approach and capability approach to human development.
Ans. Basic Needs Approach : This approach was initially proposed by the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Six basic needs i.e., health, education, food, water supply, sanitation, and housing were identified. The question of human choices is ignored and the emphasis is on the provision of basic needs of defined sections.
Capability Approach :
This approach is associated with Prof. Amartya Sen. Building human capabilities in the areas of health, education and access to resources is the key to increasing human development.
Q. 15. Explain any three features of ‘Welfare Approach’ to Human Development.
Ans. Three features of welfare approach are :
(i) This approach looks at human beings as beneficiaries or targets of all development activities.
(ii) The approach argues for higher government expenditure on education, health, social security and amenities.
(iii) People are not participants in development but only passive recipients.
(iv) The government is responsible for increasing levels of human development by maximizing the expenditure on welfare.
Q. 16. Explain the concept of productivity and empowerment as the pillars of human development.
Ans. The idea of human development is supported by the concepts of equity, sustainability, productivity and empowerment. Productivity here stands for human labour productivity or productivity in terms of human work. Such productivity must be constantly enriched by building capabilities in people. This is because it is people who are the real wealth of nations. Therefore efforts to increase their knowledge, provide better health facilities, balanced diet and high literacy rates ultimately leads to better work efficiency.
Empowerment means to have the power to make choices. Such power comes from increasing freedom and capability. Good governance and peopleoriented policies are required to empower people. The empowerment of socially and economically disadvantaged groups is of special importance. Enhancement of human development should result in creation of capabilities through improved health, knowledge and skill. 3 Commonly Made Error l The students tend to think that the components of human development and the pillars of human development are two different concepts. Answering Tipl The student should keep in mind that whenever such a question is asked all the four pillars of human development need to be answered.
Q. 17. Explain three characteristics of welfare approach of human development.
Ans. (i) Welfare approach considers human beings as beneficiaries or targets of all developmental activities.
(ii) The Government must spend more money on providing education and health facilities for all. These activities are the primary responsibilities of the government.
(iii) People are not participants in development but only passive recipients.
Q. 18. Explain any three human values which are required to empower socially and economically disadvantages people.
Ans. Building people’s capabilities in the
(i) areas of health,
(ii) education and
(iii) access to resources is helpful in enlarging their choices.
Q. 19. ”Development occurs only when there is a positive change in the quality.” Explain the statement with examples.
Ans. Development is a process of social change, not merely a set of policies and programs instituted for some specific results.
(i) The basic mechanism driving social change is increasing awareness leading to better organization. When society senses new and better opportunities for progress it develops new forms of organization to exploit these new openings successfully.
(ii) Development also requires resources such as capital, technology and supporting infrastructure.
(iii) Development is the result of society’s capacity to organize resources to meet challenges and opportunities. Society passes through well-defined stages in the course of its development.
Q. 20. Name the country having the lowest rank in Human Development Index in 2003.
Ans. Lowest rank in HDI in 2003 – Nigeria.
Q. 21. How does HDI rank the countries?
Ans. The human development index (HDI) ranks the countries based on their performance in the key areas of health, education and access to resources.
Q. 22. What is the indicator of access to knowledge?
Ans. The adult literacy rate and the gross enrolment ratio represent access to knowledge. The number of adults who are able to read and write and the number of children enrolled in schools show how easy or difficult it is to access knowledge in a particular country.
Q. 23. How are countries with higher human development identified?
Ans. Countries with higher human development are those where a lot of investment in the social sector has taken place.
Q. 24. How is human poverty index related to human development?
Ans. The human poverty index is related to the human development index. This index measures the shortfall in human development.
Q. 25. What is the role of Human Development Index?
Ans. The human development index measures attainments in human development. It reflects what has been achieved in the key areas of human development.
Q. 26. Name the indexes used by the UNDP to measure human development.
Ans. The Human Development index and the Human Poverty index are two important indices to measure human development used by the UNDP.
Q. 27. Which country has the highest human development index?
Q. 28. Which areas are important for enhancing people’s choices according to Dr. Mahbub-ul-Haq? Explain with examples.
Ans. (i) Dr. Haq has described human development as development that enlarges people’s choices and improves their lives. People are central to all development under this concept. According to him, access to resources, health and education are the important areas for enhancing people’s choices.
(ii) For example, an uneducated child can not make the choice to be a doctor because his/her choices has get limited by her lack of education.
(iii) Similarly, poor people cannot choose to take medical treatment for disease because their choice is limited by their lack of resources.
Q. 29. Name four countries having high human development. Discuss three reasons for high human development index.
Ans. Four countries having high human development index are :
(i) Norway (ii) Australia (iii) Netherlands (iv) USA
Reasons for high HDI are:
(i) Investment is more in social sector (education, health care)
(ii) Good governance
(iii) Free from political turmoil and instability.
Q. 30. Name any four countries having low human development index. Discuss three reasons for low human development index.
Ans. Four countries having low human development index are :
(i) Democratic Republic of Congo (ii) Nigeria (iii) Burundi (iv) Mozambique
Reasons for low HDI are :
(i) Political turmoil (ii) Social instability (iii) Famine (iv) High incidence of diseases
Q. 31. Discuss in detail about the alternative view of development given by Dr. Mahbub-ul-Haq and Prof. Amartya Sen.
Ans. For many decades a country’s level of development was measured only in terms of its economic growth.
The ideas that the quality of life people enjoy in a country, the opportunities they have and freedoms they enjoy are important aspects of development now and the works of Mahbub-ul-Haq and Amartya Sen are important in this regard.
(i) According to Haq, development is people’s choice in order to lead long and healthy lives with dignity. The basic goal of development is to create conditions where people can live meaningful lives.
(ii) Prof. Amartya Sen saw an increase in freedom or decrease in freedom as the main objective of development.
(iii) The world of these economists are path breaking and have succeeded in bringing people to the centre of any discussion on development.