Very Short Questions With Answer (1 Mark Each)
Q. 1. Which five foundations of culture were given by Ghurye?
Ans. Ghurye discussed following the five foundations of culture:
(i) Religious Consciousness
(iv) Free Pursuit of Knowledge
Q. 2. Who founded Indian Sociological society?
Ans. Indian Sociological society was founded by G.S. Ghurye and it also published journal called ‘Sociological Bulletin’.
Q. 3. Who founded Indian Sociological society?
Ans. Ghurye is known in sociology for his work done on caste and race but he also studied other issues like tribes, family and marriage, culture, civilisation, historical role of urban areas, religion and conflict etc.
Q. 4. Give meaning of Gotra Exogamy.
Ans. Gotra Exogamy is a form of marriage restriction according to which members of same gotra cannot marry with each other. It is so because members of same gotra are considered as blood relatives and it is not possible to establish marital relations with blood relatives.
Q. 5. Give views of Ghurye about Gotra Exogamy.
Ans. About Gotra Exogamy, Ghurye was of the view that there is a conception that members of same gotra are blood relatives. But Ghurye hardly accepted this view. According to him it is not necessary in Indian society that members of a clan are not the blood relatives. But in present times, rule of gotra exogamy is used in Indian society.
Q. 6. Give meaning
According to Risley, humans can be divided on the basis of their physical features like breadth of skull, length of nore or that region of skull where brain is located and on these basis humans are divided in different races.
Q. 7. According to D.P., how a sociologist should be?
Ans. According to D.P., an Indian Sociologist must not be a sociologist alone but he first of all should be an Indian because only by associating with local traditions, customs, etc. one will be able to understand that what is there in social system.
Q. 8. According to D.P., What sociologists should learn?
Ans. According to D.P., Sociologists must be aware about their local customs, traditions etc. That’s why sociologists must learn language, must know the importance of culture and different parts of language. So he must not only learn Sanskrit, Persian or Arabian language but he must know about local dialects.
Q. 9. According to D.P., Which are the three principles of change recognised in Indian traditions?
Ans. According to D.P., three principles of change are recognised in Indian tradition and there are Shruti, Smriti and Anubhava. Out of these three, the last one is the revolutionary principle. It means the most important principle of change in Indian society was collective experience of groups.
Q. 10. What is the position of Actor given by D.P.?
Ans. D.P. was of the view that in the position of an actor, an individual works as an actor. An individual has its independent existence and humans have some basic features in achieving their interests and objectives.
Short Questions With Answer (2 Mark Each)
Q. 1. Give few names of books written by Dr. G.S. Ghurye.
Ans. Dr. Ghurye wrote many books so that traditional institutions of Indian society could be studied. Following are the few books written by him.
(i) Caste and Race in India — 1932
(ii) The Social Process — 1938
(iii) Culture and Society — 1941
(iv) Indian Customs — 1951
(v) Race and Religion in Negro Africa — 1953
(vi) Cities of India-Sociological Bulletin — 1953
(vii) Social Tensions in India — 1968
(viii) Family and Kin in Indo-European Culture — 1955
Q. 2. Give six features of Caste system given by Ghurye.
Ans. Ghurye gave six features of caste system and these are:
(i) Segmental division of society
(ii) Hierarchy or hierarchical division
(iii) Restriction on social interaction
(iv) Different rights and duties of different castes
(v) Restrictions on choice of oocupation
(vi) Restrictions on Marriage.
Q. 3. Does Ghurye studied the concept of Religion?
Ans. Yes, Ghurye studied the concept of religion and he wrote many books about religion. Right from his childhood he wanted to know about different aspects of religions. He studied Manusmriti in his young age. Except this, he studied other religious texts especially Hindu religious texts. Ghurye did sociological analysis of different religions and explained them from sociological point of view. He also threw light on role of saints in religious field of Indian Society. He says that these saints explained different aspects of religion from time to time and conveyed the message of religion to general masses.
Q. 4. What were Ghurye’s views about tribal community?
Ans. Ghurye believed that Indian tribes are backward Hindus. His brief views about tribes are given below:
(i) According to him Hinduisation of few tribes is completed and tribes have adopted values, traditions, life styles etc. of Hindu Society.
(ii) He was of the view that Hinduisation of few tribes is in the process. These tribal groups are adopting Hindu beliefs, traditions, life style etc.
(iii) According to him, few tribes are not influenced by Hindus and these groups are not affected by Hindu beliefs, ideas, traditions, life styles etc.
Q. 5. What were the views of tribes about Hindu’s and the British rule given by Ghurye?
Ans. Ghurye did not accept the reasons of anthropologists and the British administrators that there is existance of opposition among tribes and Hindus on linguistic or any other basis. Infact Ghurye, with evidences, says that economic condition of tribes has improved when they come in contact with Hindus. Infact they have joined the main stream of society. Ghurye was of the view that the British rule was quite harmful for tribes. Tribal’s economic interests are harmed by the British forest policies. Actually the British policies are responsible for deteriorating economic condition of Indian tribal and non-tribal people.
Q. 6. Give Ghurye’s views about rural community and urban community.
Ans. Ghurye was in favour of urban development but at the same time he was of the view that urban areas must not be developed by overlooking the rural areas.
Ghurye was of the view that raw material and other goods produced in rural areas must be used for urban development. In his book ‘Cities and Civilisation’, Ghurye has written about urban community and problems exist in urban areas. According to him following problems exist in urban areas:
(i) Insufficient drinking water
(ii) Human Congestion
(iii) Traffic Congestion
(iv) Indiscriminate Tree falling
(v) Sound ornoise Pollution.
Actually he wanted to develop urban areas. He also gave stress on the fact that different urban problems must be kept in mind while making plans of urban development.
Q. 7. Give names of books written by D.P. Mukherjee.
Ans. (i) Personality and the Social Sciences — 1924
(ii) Basic Concepts in Sociology — 1932
(iii) Modern Indian Culture — 1942
(iv) Problems of Indian Youth — 1948
(v) Diversities — 1958
Q. 8. ‘What is meant by Living Tradition’ given by D.P. Mukherjee?
Ans. According to D.P. Mukherjee living tradition is a tradition which maintains links with the past by retaining something from it, and at the same time incorporates new things. A living tradition thus includes some old elements but also some new ones. We can understand it in a better sense when we will try to find out from different generations of people in our neighbourhood or family about what is changed and what is unchanged about specific practices.