Short Questions with Answers - Local Governments Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Political Science Class 11

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Humanities/Arts : Short Questions with Answers - Local Governments Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

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Q. 1. In which year 73rd and 74th Amendments were passed?
Ans.
73rd and 74th Amendments were passed in 1992.

Q. 2. Which amendments gave constitutional status to the local bodies?
Ans. 
73rd and 74th Amendments gave constitutional status to the local bodies.

Q. 3. Who is called as the pioneer of local government in India?
Ans. 
Lord Ripon.

Q. 4. Which is the first state in India to implement Panchayati Raj?
Ans.
Rajasthan.

Q. 5. What do you understand by Local Self-Government?
Ans.
Local Self-Government means that the local affairs such as the management of roads, arrangements for sanitation, burial grounds, primary and middle school, etc., should be done by the institutions of Local Self-Government such as the Municipalities, Municipal Corporations, Gram Panchayat, etc. A Local Self-Government in India therefore means that the people of a particular locality should be given sufficient autonomy and share in the running of their administration.

Q. 6. Mention the names of institutions of Local Self-Government in India.
Ans.
Local Self-Government in India is of two types:
(a) Urban Local Government and (b) Rural Local Government.
(a) Institutions of Urban Local Government are Municipal Corporation, Municipal Committee, Municipal Boards, (b) Institutions of Rural Local Government are Gram Panchayat, Panchayat Samiti and Zila Parishad.

Q. 7. To what extend Panchayati Raj System has helped in strengthening the Indian Democracy at the grass-root level?
Ans.
(a) Panchayati Raj has created awareness regarding the working of democratic institutions at the grass-root level.
(b) Panchayati Raj has established a democratic government in the village. The villagers themselves control the administration of their village.
(c) Panchayati Raj has created opportunities for participation and gaining experience as representative at grass-root level.

Q. 8. Write two functions of Gram Sabha.
Ans. 
(a) The Gram Sabha decides the broad policies for the development of the village.
(b) The Gram Sabha approves the annual budget of the village.

Q. 9. State any two welfare functions of a Gram Panchayat.
Ans.
The two welfare functions of a Gram Panchayat are:
(a) Constructions, repair and maintenance of public wells, ponds and tanks and supply of water for domestic use.
(b) Regulating places for disposal of dead bodies, carcasses and other offensive materials and disposal of unclaimed corpses and carcasses.

Q. 10. Write two provisions of 73rd Amendment.
Ans.
(a) According to 73rd Amendment, the tenure of Panchayats in all the states is 5 years.
(b) In all the institutions of Panchayati Raj, seats are reserved for Scheduled Castes, Backwards classes and women.

Q. 11. Mention two provisions of 74th Amendment Act.
Ans. (a) Local bodies have become integral part of the Constitution. By 74th Amendment, constitutional status is given to urban local bodies.
(b) The people belonging to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes have been given representation in all urban local bodies in proportion to their population.

Q. 12. Write two functions of Block Samiti.
Ans.
(a) Block or Panchayat Samiti tries to promote agriculture in its area and distribute among the farmers good seeds, fertilisers and scientific instruments.
(b) It makes sanitary arrangements in its area. It takes steps for improving the health of the people.

Q. 13. Write down the names of urban bodies.
Ans.
1. Municipal Corporation
2. Municipal Council
3. Municipal Committee
4. Cantonment Board
5. Improvement Trust
6. Port Trust.

Q. 14. Mention any two problems of Panchayati Raj.
Ans. 
(a) The majority of the villagers are uneducated and most of the members of a Village Panchayat are also uneducated.
(b) The government exercises a greater degree of control on the working of Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and Zila Parishads.

Q. 15. Which are the two important developmental functions performed by the Zila Parishad?
Ans.
Two important developmental functions of Zila Parishad are as follows:
(a) Zila Parishad is responsible for the promotion of measures to increase agricultural functions and to popularise the use of improved agricultural implements and the adoption of improved agricultural practices.
(b) Zila Parishad constructs, renovates and maintains minor irrigation works and lift irrigation.

Q. 16. Give any two compulsory and two optional functions of Municipal Corporation.
Ans.
Compulsory or Obligatory Functions.
(a) Supply of water and maintenance of water work.
(b) Providing street and road light.
Optional or Discretionary Functions.  
(i) Construction of public parks, gardens,libraries, etc.
(ii) Construction of public housing.

Q. 17. Explain the organisation of Panchayati Raj System.
Ans.
The Panchayati Raj System as recommended by Balwant Rai Mehta Committee has been organised on a three-tier structure. Gram Panchayat at the village level, Panchayat Samiti at the block level and Zila Parishad at the district level. In Punjab and Haryana, Panchayati Raj is organised on three-tier basis. In Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Haryana, Gram Panchayat, Panchayat Samiti and Zila Parishad are directly elected. But there are some states where Panchayati Raj is organised on two-tier basis. States with less than 20 lakh population have been given the option to set up or not to set up Panchayat Samiti.

Q. 18. Write any four problems of Panchayati Raj in India.
Ans.
(a) The majority of the villagers are uneducated and most of the members of a Village Panchayat are also uneducated.
(b) The government exercises a greater degree of control in the working of Panchayats, Panchayat Samitis and Zila Parishads.
(c) The Panchayati Raj institutions do not have sufficient funds to meet their needs.
(d) The villagers have developed the evil spirit of communalism. During elections, people are generally divided on the basis of religion and caste.

Q. 19. Give any four changes incorporated in the Panchayati Raj Act to improve the Panchayati Raj.
Ans. 
73rd Constitutional Amendment has incorporated the following four important provisions in the Constitution to improve the Panchayati Raj.
(a) Direct Election of the Members. According to 73rd Amendment, all members of the Gram Panchayat are directly elected by the voters of the Gram Sabha. For this purpose, the territorial area of each Gram Panchayat is divided into territorial constituencies—and one member is elected from each constituency.
(b) Tenure of Panchayat. According to 73rd Amendment Act, the tenure of Panchayats, in all the states is 5 years. If a Panchayat is dissolved or superseded before the expiry of its tenure, it is obligatory to hold election within six months.
(c) State Election Commission. For the supervision, superintendence and control of election staff of Panchayati Raj institutions, provision for the establishment of independent Election Commission at the state level has been made.
(d) Finance Commission. According to 73rd Amendment Act, the Governor of a State shall appoint Finance Commission to review the financial position of the Panchayats and to make recommendation to the Governor to improve the financial position of the Panchayats.

Q. 20. Explain the importance of the Panchayati Raj.
Ans.
According to Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, Panchayati Raj is a new revolution which will help in the building of a new India.
(a) People’s Raj. The most important thing about the Panchayati Raj is that it is the people’s Raj. People’s administration has been established in the villages. There is no better administration than the administration by the people themselves.
(b) Direct Democracy. Panchayati Raj is not in any way less than the establishment of a democratic government in the village. The villagers themselves control the administration of their village.
(c) Self-sufficiency. Panchayati Raj aims at making every village self-dependent for the purpose of making and executing its development plans. The Panchayati Raj institutions make people selfdependent and self-reliant.
(d) Self-confidence. Panchayati Raj helps in the development of self-confidence among the people, and it helps in building up a great and grand nation.

Q. 21. List any four functions of the Urban Local Self-Government.
Ans.
Following are the four important functions of the Council or Urban Local Self-Government.
(a) Sanitation. The urban local government is responsible for sanitary conditions for the city. It is the function of the committee to see that public roads are properly swept, cleaned and watered.
(b) Roads and Bridges. Municipal Committee constructs roads and bridges in its area and undertakes its repair and maintenance.
(c) Water Supply. Urban local Govt. or Municipal Committee makes arrangements of pure drinking water in its area. Arrangements of water pumps is made in streets, bazaars and on public places. Water is also supplied in the houses of the people.
(d) Public Health. The preservation of public health is a very important function of Municipal Committee. Functions performed by Municipal Committee for the preservation of health are establishment and maintenance of hospitals and dispensaries, vaccination, prevention of the sale of adulterated food stuff, provision of maternity and child welfare centre, etc.

Q. 22. Describe the main features of the Municipalities after passing the 74th Amendment Act.
Ans.
The 74th Amendment Act was passed in 1992. By this Amendment Act, Part IX A was inserted in the constitution. Following were the main features of the Municipalities after the passing of 74th Amendment Act.
1. Three types of municipalities: Nagar Panchayat, Municipal Councils and Municipal Corporations.
2. Five year tenure of all types of municipalities.
3. Appointment of Election Commission in each state to conduct elections of the local bodies.
4. Metropolitan and district planning committees in each state.
5. Appointment of a Finance Commission for local governments.
6. Reservation of seats of SCs, STs, OBCs and women.

Q. 23. How is the Finance Commission of the state constituted? What functions does it perform regarding the local self-government?
Ans. 
The 74th Amendment provides for this commission to control the financial position. It is appointed by the Governor. Its number of members, qualifications, elections, etc., are to be decided by the state legislatures.
The functions it performs regarding the Local SelfGovernment are as follows:
(i) To determine the status of Finance in Panchayats.
(ii) To determine the distribution of taxes between the state government and Panchayats.
(iii) To determine certain principles in regard to taxes of Panchayats.
(iv) To perform over such functions as is given by the Governor.

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