Q. 1. Name any one major area of subsistence gathering in the world.
Ans. High latitude zones of Northern Canada, Northern Eurasia and Southern Chile. Low latitude zones such as the Amazon Basin, Tropical Africa, Northern fringe of Australia and interior parts of Southeast Asia.
Q. 2. Who are called red collar workers?
Who are red collar workers?
Ans. People engaged in primary activities are called red collar workers.
Q. 3. What is nomadic herding?
Ans. Nomadic herding or pastoral nomadism is a primitive subsistence activity in which the herders rely on animals for food, clothing, shelter, tools and transport.
Q. 4. What do you mean by Transhumance?
Ans. The process of migration from plain areas to pastures or mountains during summers and again from mountain pastures to plain areas during winters is known as transhumance.
Q. 5. Name any two areas of high latitudes where hunting and food gathering is practiced.
Ans. Two areas of high latitudes where hunting and food gathering is practiced are : (a) Scandinavian countries (b) Siberian areas.
Q. 6. Why products of gathering cannot compete in the world market?
Ans. Products of gathering (an activity) cannot compete in the world market as synthetic products are of better quality and available in large quantities and are priced lower.
Q. 7. Name the major country of South America where commercial livestock rearing is practised.
Q. 8. Name the two activities on which the earliest human beings were dependent for their sustenance.
Ans. Gathering and hunting.
Q. 9. Write any two primary activities.
Ans. Hunting, agriculture, fishing and mining.
Q. 10. Describe the way of life of nomadic herders.
Ans. Way of life of nomadic herders :
(i) They depend on the primitive subsistence activity.
(ii) Herders rely on animals for food, clothing, shelter, tools and transport.
(iii) They move from one place to another with their livestock.
(iv) They follow well-defined territory.
(v) A wide variety of animals is kept in different regions.
(vi) Nomadism is associated with three different regions.
(vii) In mountainous regions, they practice transhumance.
(viii) Their numbers are decreasing due to change in life style.
Q. 11. Define ‘dairy farming’.
Ans. Dairy Farming is the most advanced and efficient type of rearing of milch animals. It is highly capital and labour intensive.
Q. 12. Explain ‘slash and burn agriculture’.
Ans. The vegetation is usually cleared by fire, and the ashes add to the fertility of the soil. Shifting cultivation is thus, also called slash and burn agriculture.
Q. 13. Explain the term market gardening.
Ans. Market gardening specializes in the cultivation of high value crops such as vegetables, fruits and flowers, solely for the urban markets. Farms are small and are located where there are good transportation links with the urban centre where high income group of consumers is located.
Q. 14. “Agri-business farm are mechanized and large in size”. Examine the statement.
Ans. This type of farming is a typical example of extensive commercial grain farming. Wheat is the main crop, other crops such as corn, barley, oats and rye are also grown. The farm size is also very large and big machines are used to cultivate plough and harvest the crops.
Q. 15. Mention an area of extensive commercial grain farming in Africa.
Ans. The Velds of South Africa.
Q. 16. Future of shifting cultivation is bleak. Discuss.
Ans. The future of shifting cultivation is bleak because :
(i) Shifting cultivation is basically a primitive form of agriculture which is mostly popular only among the tribes who show acceptance towards the advancement of technology.
(ii) One of the major problems due to which the future of shifting cultivation is bleak is the fact that the cycle of jhum becomes less and less due to loss of fertility in different parcels.
Q. 17. Large scale dairy farming is the result of the development of transportation and refrigeration.
Ans. (i) Dairy farming is highly labour intensive as it involves rigorous care of feeding and milching.
(ii) It is practised mainly near urban and industrial centres which provide neighbourhood market for fresh milk and dairy products.
(iii) The development of transportation, refrigeration and pasteurisation and other preservation processes have increased the duration of storage of various dairy products and hence turned it into large scale dairy farming.
Q. 18. What is truck farming? Mention any two features of truck farming.
Ans. Truck farming is practiced in the peripheral areas of metropolitan cities where vegetables and milk are brought daily to the cities by truck by travelling overnight.
(i) Farmers are engaged in growing of vegetables, fruits and flowers, etc.
(ii) They use HYV seeds, chemicals and fertilizers.
(iii) This farming requires a well developed network of roads connected with fields.
Q. 19. Why Mediterranean agriculture is considered as one of the best and profitable type of agriculture?
Ans. Mediterranean agriculture is considered as one of the best and profitable type of agriculture because :
(i) It is highly specialised commercial agriculture.
(ii) Viticulture is highly specialised commercial agriculture.
(iii) Best quality wines in the world with distinctive flavours are produced from high quality grapes. Inferior grapes are dried into raisins and currents.
(iv) Olives and figs are produced in this region.
(v) More valuable crops such as fruits and vegetables are grown in winters when there is great demand in European and North American markets.
Q. 20. What is subsistence agriculture? Mention any four characteristic of primitive subsistence agriculture.
Ans. Subsistence agriculture is one in which the farming areas consume all , or nearly so, of the products locally grown.
Four Characteristics of Primitive Subsistence Agriculture are :
(i) The cultivated patches are very small and cultivation is done with very primitive tools, such as sticks and hoes.
(ii) After sometime ( 3 to 5 years) the soil looses its fertility and the farmer shifts to another part and cleans another patch of the forest for cultivation.
(iii) The farmer may return to the earlier patch after sometime.
(iv) One of the features of this cultivation is that the cycle of Jhum becomes less and less due to loss of fertility in different parts.
Q. 21. Mention the factors on which the profitability of mining depends on.
Ans. Profitability of mining depends on :
(i) Physical factors (ii) Economic factors
Q. 22. What is the meaning of ‘open-cast mining’?
Ans. The surface mining is also known as open-cast mining. It is the easiest and the cheapest away of mining minerals that occur close to the surface.
Q. 23. What are the features of open-cast mining?
Ans. Features of open – cast mining :
(i) The surface mining is also known as open-cast mining.
(ii) It is the easiest way of mining.
(iii) It is the cheapest way of mining minerals that occur close to the surface.
(iv) Over-head costs such as safety precaution and equipment is relatively low.
(v) The output is both large and rapid.
Q. 24. Describe the two factors which affect the profitability of mining operations. Name the two most popular methods of mining.
Explain two factors affecting the profitability of mining. Which are the two types of mining?
Ans. The profitability of mining operations depends on two main factors :
(i) Physical factors include the size, grade and the mode of occurrence of the deposits.
(ii) Economic factors such as the demand for the mineral, technology available and used, capital to develop infrastructure, labour and transport costs. Names : Surface mining (open-cast mining) and underground mining method.
Detailed Answer : (i) Physical factors include the size, grade and the mode of occurrence of the deposits: Generally the higher-grade ores are more economic to work, not only because they yield large amount of metal but also because their higher metal content makes them easier and cheaper to smelt.
Minerals of high value such as gold, diamonds, copper can be mined at very high cost, because they are in great demand and fetch high prices.
(ii) Economics factors such as demand for the minerals, technology available and used, capital to develop infrastructure, labour and transport costs: The size of deposit is important because mining requires a large amount of expensive equipment.
Sometimes, small deposits may be worked out profitably where transport cost is low.
The method of mining depends on the mode of occurrence of the ores. The open-cast mining is the cheapest, while shaft mining is expensive. The accessibility of a region where the particular mineral deposit occurs is of great significance. For the success of mining, transportation facilities are very essential. Technological changes pertaining to mining methods, manufacturing processes also play an important role in turning worthless deposits into esteemed commercial ores.
Names : Surface mining/Open-cast mining and underground mining method.
Q. 25. What are the two types of mining? Write two characteristics of each.
Ans. The two types of mining are : underground mining and surface mining.
Underground mining :
(i) They are more expensive.
(ii) They are often used to reach deeper deposits.
Surface mining or open cast mining:
(i) They are typically used for more shallow and less valuable deposits.
(ii) It is easier way of mining.