Q. 1. What do you mean by the Rights?
Ans. A man needs some facilities for his development. These facilities are called the rights.
Q. 2. Write down a definition of rights.
Ans. According to Bosanquet, “A right is a claim recognised by society and enforced by state.”
Q. 3. Describe an important element of the right.
Ans. Rights are recognised by society and enforced by state.
Q. 4. Mention any one feature of the rights.
Ans. A right is a claim of independence of a person to do any work. He gets it in society. The demand for facilities is called a right.
Q. 5. How many kinds are of rights?
Ans. 1. Natural Rights
2. Moral Rights
3. Legal Rights.
Q. 6. What are Natural Rights?
Ans. Natural Rights are those rights which a man gets from nature and which cannot be abolished by the state.
Q. 7. Enumerate kinds of natural rights.
Ans. 1. Right to Life
2. Right to Property
3. Right to Freedom.
Q. 8. What is the main feature of moral rights?
Ans. Moral rights are not legally recognised. These rights cannot be enforced by the state.
Q. 9. What are Legal Rights?
Ans. Legal Rights are those rights which have the recognition of state. If anyone violates these rights, he is sentenced in accordance with the law.
Q. 10. In how many parts can legal rights be divided? Write their names.
Ans. 1. Fundamental Rights
2. Social Rights
3. Political Rights
4. Economic Rights.
Q. 11. In how many parts can duties be divided?
Ans. 1. Moral Duties
2. Legal Duties.
Q. 12. What is the meaning of Moral Duties?
Ans. Moral Duties are based on good conduct. They are performed on ethical grounds.
Q. 13. Explain the meaning of rights.
Ans. Rights are those conditions of social life without which human personality cannot develop. The rights are recognised by the state. According to Bosanquet, ‘‘A right is a claim recognised byt society and enforced by the state.
Q. 14. Distinguish between rights and claims.
Ans. Rights are claims recognised by the society and enforced by law and state. Without recognition, rights are empty claims. Each and every claim of an individual cannot be termed as right.
Q. 15. Explain any two socio-economic rights.
Ans. 1. Right to freedom in domestic affairs.
The citizens should be given freedom in their domestic affairs. The state should not interfere in the personal life of the individuals. The state cannot prescribe a particular dress and model for the people.
2. Right to adequate wages. The citizens must be given such wages as will enable them to maintain, at least, the minimum standard of living. If the workers do not get adequate wages for their work, they cannot improve their standard of living.
Q. 16. How are Rights and Duties interrelated ? Give two examples.
“Right implies duty”. Explain.
Ans. Rights and Duties are two sides of the same coin. Right and duties go side by side.
1. One’s right is another’s duty. A right belonging to one person imposes a corresponding duty on the others to respect his right. For instance, an individual’s right to property implies that it is the duty of others not to take away or steal his property without his consent.
2. One’s right is one’s duty also. A right is at the same time a duty. If an individual enjoys a right, it must be remembered that the same right belongs to all other individuals. Therefore, it is his duty not to interfere in the enjoyment to other’s rights.
Q. 17. Explain the role of education in the development of Human personality.
Ans. Education plays a very significant role in the development of human personality because:
1. Education fills a person with knowledge and gives him confidence.
2. Education broadens individual’s outlook towards life.
3. Education awakens individuals towards their rights and duties.
4. Education gives individual a sense of judgement.
Q. 18. Illustrate by giving two examples that my rights are your duties and vice–versa.
Ans. 1. If I have the right to property then it is the duty of another person not to damage my property and if the second person has the right to property, then it is my duty not to damage or steal away his property.
2. If I have the right to life then it is the duty of another person not to interfere in my life and enjoyment. Same duty also belongs to me towards my fellow beings.
Q. 19. What do you understand by Economic rights?
Ans. Economic rights are those, which are essential for the economic development of an individual. In Communist countries, economic rights are the part of legal rights.
Q. 20. Name any four economic rights of a citizen.
Ans. The citizens in a Modern State enjoy economic rights for their economic well being. The most important economic rights of a citizen are as follows:
1. Right to Work. Every citizen enjoys the right to get a job or to take up a profession according to his ability and capacity. It is the duty of the State to provide job to every individual. If the state is unable to provide work to every citizen, it should give monthly allowance.
2. Right to get Proper Wages. It is not enough to provide work to each individual, rather they should be given proper wages to make both ends meet.
3. Right to Property. The liberal democratic state recognises the right to property, subject to the limitation that the property may be acquired for public purposes.
4. Right to Economic Security. In the modern welfare state, citizens are granted the right to economic security.
Q. 21. What do you understand by civil rights?
Mention any two such rights.
Ans. Civil Rights. Those rights which relate to the protection and enjoyment of life and property of the individual are known as civil rights. Civil rights are regarded as essential to civilized existence. These rights relate to the achievement of man’s highest selfdevelopment. They are granted, protected and enforced by the state. The two important civil rights are:
1. Right to Life: It means that the state must afford protection to the individual against all inimical forces.
2. Right to Personal Liberty: It means that an individual must be given the freedom to enjoy his personal life. He must not be interfered with by the laws of the state till he remains within the bounds of law.
Q. 22. Define the term ‘Duty’. Mention any two legal and two moral duties.
Ans. A duty is an obligation. A man is said to have a duty in any matter if he is under an obligation to do or not to do something. It is such an obligation by virtue of which we are bound to do something or refrain from doing so because another person has the right to expect some action or mission from us. A duty therefore has both positive and a negative aspect.
1. Allegiance. Every citizen has allegiance to the state to which he belongs. He must defend the state against all enemies and dangers.
2. Obedience. Every citizen has the supreme duty of obeying the law.
3. Payment of Taxes. It is the duty of the citizen to pay taxes which are legally imposed on him. The state has the right to tax its citizens who should pay all these taxes without any hestitation.
1. Good Moral character. A citizen must have a good moral character.
2. Good Health. A citizen can serve the society well if he enjoys a good health. A citizen should be energetic and strong both mentally and bodily.
Q. 23. Mention any four Political Rights of a citizen.
Ans. 1. Right to Vote. Right to vote is the most important political right. It is through the exercise of this right that citizens in a democracy take part in the government of the country.
2. Right to Criticise the Government. In democratic systems, every citizen has the right to criticise the government and express his views about any action or policy of the government if it goes against the welfare of the people.
3. Right to Contest Elections. Every citizen is given the right to be elected to the local bodies, state or central legislature. State sometimes imposes certain restrictions regarding age, education, etc., for being elected to the legislative bodies.
4. Right to hold Public Offices. Every citizen is given the right to hold public offices. Every public office—executive, legislative and is equally open to all citizens if they are otherwise to hold that office.
Q. 24. ‘Rights without duties have no meaning.’ Comment.
‘Rights imply duties.’ Discuss.
Ans. Rights and duties are closely related to each other and they always go together. A right belonging to one person imposes a corresponding duty on the others to respect his right. His right is, therefore, their duty. One’s right is one’s duty also. If an individual enjoys a right, it must be remembered that the same right belongs to all other individuals.
Therefore, it is his duty not to interfere in the enjoyment of other’s rights. It is the duty of an individual to make proper use of his rights. Moreover, one’s right is one’s duty to use it for social good. Rights of an individual imply certain duties towards the state.
Rights have no meaning without the state and hence it is the duty of every individual to respect the laws of the state. Thus, rights and duties are so closely related with each other that one cannot exist without the other.