Q. 1. In which book Plato gave his theory of Justice?
Ans. The Republic.
Q. 2. From which language the word ‘Jus’ is taken?
Ans. Latin language.
Q. 3. Which type of Justice is given priority in the Preamble of Indian Constitution?
Ans. Social Justice.
Q. 4. Define just society according to Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
Ans. According to Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, “A just society is that society in which ascending sense of reverence and descending sense of contempt is dissolved into the creation of a compassionate society.”
Q. 5. What is the meaning of Economic Justice?
Ans. There should be a proper division of the material means of the country. They should be used for the benefit of more and more people. They should serve the interest of maximum people.
Q. 6. What is Legal Justice?
Ans. Legal Justice is concerned with the principle and process established by law in a state.
Q. 7. Mention any one social justice included in Directive Principles of State Policy.
Ans. According to Art. 38, the state will create such a social system in which all the citizens will get social, economic and political justice in every sphere of national life.
Q. 8. What is the importance of justice in democracy?
Ans. Justice not only develops the personality of the individual but is also helpful in the development of society.
Q. 9. Write down two dimensions of social justice.
Ans. (i) Equality before law
(ii) Abolition of special rights.
Q. 10. Write down two dimensions of economic justice.
Ans. (i) Right to work
(ii) Fulfilment of basic needs.
Q.11. Mention any two postulates of Justice.
Ans. 1. Truth: Truth is the basic postulate of justice. It means exact presentation of an incident. Justice demands objectively that we should be truthful in relating facts concerned with subject-matter.
2. Equality before law: All the citizens should be equal before law. The citizens should not be discriminated in the name of colour, caste, creed and sex. They should be provided equal opportunities for progress.
Q.12. What is implied by social justice?
Ans. Social Justice means that all the people living in society are equal. Social justice implies that there should not be any:
1. Legal justice deals with principles and procedures as laid down by the system of law prevailing in a state, whereas moral justice deals with what is right and what is wrong. What are our rights and what are our duties as human beings.
2. The coercion power of state works behind legal justice, whereas the strength of morality is behind moral justice.
3. The scope of legal justice is limited than moral justice.
4. Legal codes are defined and fixed but this is not so with moral justice.
Q.13. Discuss the importance of social justice.
Ans. The importance of social justice is increasing day-by-day in a modern democratic state. Social justice is the very basis of present welfare state. Once Pandit Nehru expressed his view that Marxism is extremely popular not because of its scientific principles but for its readiness for social justice. Social justice is very essential for the maintenance of social harmony and peace in the society. To make democracy a success, social justice is essential.
Q.14. Do you agree that majority of the people are denied social justice in India? Discuss.
Ans. Though the makers of the Indian Constitution have made a provision for Social Justice through fundamental rights and directive principles of state policy, yet majority of the people are being denied social justice in India. The citizens enjoy right to equality, which is the very basis of social justice, but in practice economic equality does not.
Q. 15. Explain the term justice.
Ans. The word ‘justice’ has been derived from Latin word ‘Jus’ which means, bond or tie. It means, justice is that system where all individuals are related to each other. Justice is connected with the fact as to what type of moral, social, economic, political and legal relations an individual has with the other individual. In modern political science, Justice stands for that state of social life in which personal rights are combined with social welfare.
1. According to Salmond, “Justice means to give every individual his due share.”
2. Merriam State: “Justice consists in a system of understanding and procedures through which is accorded what is agreed upon as fair.”
Q.16. Distinguish between the ‘Liberalists’ and ‘Marxists’ views of justice.
Ans. Liberal Theory of Justice is based on three basic principles that are liberty, equality and fraternity. Liberal concept is in fact a legal concept of justice, which is fundamentally based on the rule of law. Liberal interpretation of justice is quite flexible and emphasises on impartial and independent judiciary. However, Marxian concept of justice is based on economic struggle, which is going on between the rich and the poor.
According to Marxian theory of justice, justice is not possible in the present capitalist state, which is based on force and false consent of the people. Justice can be established only by abolishing the capitalist state. The dictatorship of proletariat will lead to the establishment of a just society. In fact, justice (just society) will be established when there will be classless and stateless society. Instead of independent judiciary Marxist believe in committed judiciary.