VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. What do you mean by federalism?
Ans. The term federalism refers to the existence of more than one level of government in the country.
Q.2. Name all the Fundamental Rights mentioned in the Indian Constitution.
Ans.(a)Right to Equality
(b) Right to Freedom
(c) Right against Exploitation
(d) Right to Freedom of Religion
(e) Cultural and Educational Rights
(f) Right to Constitutional Remedies.
Q.3. What is Right to Equality? [V. Imp.]
Ans. Right to Equality means that all persons are equal before the law.
Q.4. What is Right against Exploitation?
Ans. Under this Right the Constitution prohibits trafficking, forced labour and children working under 14 years of age.
Q.5. How has the section on Fundamental Rights often been referred to?
Ans. It has often been referred to as the conscience of the Indian Constitution.
Q.6. How are Fundamental Rights important? Give one point.
Ans. Fundamental Rights protect citizens against the arbitrary and absolute exercise of power by the state.
Q.7. What does the word ‘State’ refer to? [Imp.]
Ans. The word ‘State’ refers to a political institution that represents a soveriegn people who occupy a definite territory. For example, the Indian State.
Q.8. What caused fear among the members of the Constituent Assembly?
Ans. They feared that the executive might become too strong and ignore its responsibility to the legislature.
Q.9. What did the members of the Constituent Assembly do to come out of their fear?
Ans. They included several provisions in the Constitution to limit and control the actions taken by the executive branch of government as a whole.
Q.10.What do you mean by a secular state? [V. Imp.]
Ans. A secular state does not officially promote any one religion as the state religion.
Q.11.Why do the people of Nepal not want to adhere to their previous Constitution? [V. Imp.]
Ans. The previous Constitution does not reflect the ideals of the country that want Nepal to be, and that they have fought for.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. What is a Constitution? What purposes does it serve? [Imp.]
Ans. A Constitution is a written document containing certain rules. It serves several purposes. It tells us what the fundamental nature of our society is. A country is usually made up of different communities of people who share certain beliefs but they may not necessarily agree on all issues. A Constitution helps serve as a set of rules and principles that all persons in a country can agree upon as the basis of the way in which they want the country to be governed.
The second important purpose of a Constitution is to define the nature of a country’s political system. In countries that have adopted a democratic form of government, the Constitution lays out certain important guidelines that govern decision-making within these societies.
Q.2. Why did Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar urge Scheduled Castes to join the government as well as the civil services? [V. Imp.]
Ans. Dr. Ambedkar was an important member of the Constituent Assembly. He believed that his participation in the Assembly helped the Scheduled Castes get some safeguards in the draft Constitution. But he also stated that although the laws might exist, scheduled castes still had reason to fear because the administration of these laws were in the hands of upper caste Hindu officers. Therefore, he urged scheduled castes to join the government as well as the civil services. It would give them a chance to play their role in law-making.
Q.3. What were the challenges before the members of the Constituent Assembly? [V. Imp.]
Ans. The following were the challenges before the members of the Constituent Assembly: (a) The country was made up of several different communities who spoke different languages, practised different religions and had distinct cultures. (b) At the time the Constitution was being written, the country was going through considerable turmoil. The partition of the country was imminent, some of the Princely States remained undivided about their future.(c) The socio-economic condition of the vast mass of people appeared dismal. (d) Poverty was another major challenge.
Q.4. Who do you mean by federal form of government? Why is it important? [V.Imp.]
Ans. Our Constitution provides for a federal form of government. This means that the responsibility of governing our country has been divided into the central government and the state governments. Panchayati Raj is the third tier of government.
India is a vast country. Different communities of people live here. Hence, a system of government needed to be devised that did not involve only persons silting in the capital city of New Delhi and making decisions for everyone. Instead, it was necessary to have another level of government in the states so that decisions could be made for that particular area. In this way, it will be easier to make positive efforts for the development of the country as well as the states.
Q.5. Explain Right to Equality in detail.
Ans. Our Constitution states that all persons are equal before the law. This means that all persons shall be equally protected by the laws of the country. The Constitution also states that no citizen can be discriminated against on the basis of their religion, caste or sex. Every person has an access to all public places such as hotels, playgrounds, shops, etc. The state cannot discriminate against anyone in matters of employment.
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. Describe the key features of the Indian Constitution.
Ans. The key features of the Indian Constitution are given below:
(a) Federalism. Our Constitution has provided for a federal form of government. This means that we have government at the state level and at the centre. Panchayati Raj is the third tier of government. India is a large country with a vast number of communities living together in it. Hence, a system needed to be devised that did not involve only persons sitting in the capital city of New Delhi and making decisions for everyone. Instead, it was important to have another level of government in states so that decisions could be made for that particular area. While each state in India enjoys autonomy in exercising powers on certain issues, subjects on national concern require that all of these states follow the laws of the central government. Under federalism, the states are agents of the federal government and they draw their authority from the Constitution.
(b) Parliamentary form of Government. The different tiers of government consists of representatives who are elected by the people. The Constitution of India guarantees universal adult franchise for all citizens. This means that people of India have a direct role in electing their representatives. At the same time, every citizen of the country, irrespective of his/ her social background, can also contest in elections. These representatives are accountable to the people.
(c) Separation of Powers. There are three organs of the state— the legislature, the executive and the judiciary. In order to prevent the misuse of power by any one branch of the state, the Constitution says that each of these organs should exercise different powers. In this way, each organ acts as a check on the other organs of the state and this establishes a balance of power between the three.
(d) Fundamental Rights. Fundamental Rights are called the conscience of the Indian Constitution. These Rights protect against the absolute exercise of power by the state. The Constitution thus guarantees the rights of individuals against the state as well as against other individuals.
(e) Secularism. It is an important feature of our Constitution. A secular state is one in which the state does not officially promote any one religion as the state religion.
Q.2. Describe all the Fundamental Rights mentioned in the Constitution. [V.Imp.]
Ans. The Constitution of India guarantees certain basic rights to all its citizens. These rights are called Fundamental Rights. There are altogether six Fundamental Rights:
(a) Right to Equality. All persons are equal before the law. It means that all persons shall be equally protected by the laws of the country. It also states that no citzen can be discriminated against on the basics of their religion, caste or sex. Every person has access to all public places such as restaurants, parks, etc. The state cannot discriminate against anyone on matters of employment.
(b) Right to Freedom. Everyone has the right to freedom of speech and expressions, the right to move freely and reside in any part of the country and the right to practise any profession, occupation or business.
(c) Right against Exploitation. The Indian Constitution prohibits trafficking, child labour and children working under 14 years of age.
(d) Right to Freedom of Religion. Everyone has the right to enjoy religious freedom. It means that everyone has the right to practise, profess and propagate the religion of their choice.
(e) Cultural and Educational Rights. Our Constitution states that all minorities, religious or linguistic, can set up their own educational institutions in order to preserve and develop their own culture.
(f) Right to Constitutional Remedies. A person has the right to go to the court for justice if he/she feels that his/her Fundamental Rights are being violated.