Short Q & A :
Q1: Discuss briefly the types of taxes in Delhi Sultanate.
There were three types of taxes-
Q2: What was the difference between the administrative system of Alauddin Khilji and Muhammad Tughluq?
|Alauddin's System||Muhammad Tughluq's system|
Q3: State the conditions under which Delhi became an important commercial centre.
Ans : Delhi first became a capital kingdom under the Tomara Rajputs. They were defeated by the chauhans or the Chamanas in the twelfth century who were from Ajmer. It was then that Delhi became a commercial centre. Many Jaina merchants lived in the city and constructed important temples.Coins minted here had a wide circulation.
Q4: Discuss briefly why the admistrative character and methods of Muhammad Tughluq were a failure?
Muhammad Tughluq's administrative character and methods were a failure. The main reasons for the failures were-
Q5: Mention all the ways in which the chieftains arranged themselves for their defense?
Ans : A fourteenth century traveler 'Ibn Battuta' explained that the Chieftains fortified themselves in mountains, in Rocky, uneven and rugged places, as well as in bamboo groves. They lived in these forests, which serve them as ramparts, inside which was their cattle and the crop, and water was available for them, this is usually rain water. These chieftains cannot be subdued except by powerful armies who enter the forests by cutting the bamboos with special instruments.
Q6: Discuss the circumstances under which the authors of the Tawarikh wrote their chronicles.
The authors of the Tawarikh had a systematic method of working-
Q7: Why did the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate fail to control the hinterlands initially?
Because of following reasons:
Q8: Why was Raziya, daughter of Sultan Iltutmish removed from the throne of Delhi?
Ans : In 1236, Sultan iltutmish's daughter Raziya became the Sultan. Minhaj-i-Siraj the chronicler of that time recognised that she was better qualified than her brothers to rule the kingdom but as per the rules and norms of Gender distinctions and Birthright he was not comfortable with a female becoming the ruler,even the nobles were not happy. She was removed from the throne in 1240
Q9: Who were the bandagans and what was their role in the Delhi Sultanate?
Ans : The Bandagans were special slaves purchased for military service by the early sultans especially Illtutmish.They were carefully trained to man important political offices in the kingdom.They were totally dependent on the masters and the Sultan could trust them implicitly.
Q10: Who were the iqtadars or the muqti and what was their role?
Ans : The Khalji and the Tughlaq monarchs appointed military commanders as governers of territories. These land were called the Iqta and the landholders were called Iqtadars or the muqti. The role of the muqti was to lead military campaigns and to maintain peace and order in their Iqtas.
Q11: What forced the two rulers Allauddin Khilji and Muhammed Tughluq to mobilise a large standing army in Delhi?
Ans : The Mongols under Genghis Khan attacked the Delhi Sultanate repeatedly after 1219.This forced the two rulers to mobilise a large standing army in Delhi because the attacks increased during the reign of Allaudin Khilji and in the early years of Muhammed Tughluq's rule.
Q12: Why do you think Barani critisised Sultan Muhammed Tughluq?
Ans : Sultan muhammed Tughluq appointed Aziz Khummar, a wine distiller, Firuj Hajjam, a barber, Manka tabbakh, a cook and two garderners Ladhs and Pira to high administrative posts.Ziyauddin barani , a fourteenth century chronicler reported the appointments as a sign of the sultan's loss of judgement and his incapacity to rule.
Q13: What did the Iqtadar or Muqtis do with the revenue they collected from the region?
Ans : The duty of Iqtadar or Muqti was to maintain law and order in their iqtas. In exchange of their services, they collected revenues of their assignments as salary.They also paid the soldiers from the revenue they collected.These muqti's were assigned iqtas for a short period of time to maintain control.
Q14: What do you mean by Iqta System?
Ans : The Khalji and Tughluq Monarchs appointed military commanders as governors of territories of varying sizes. These lands were called Iqta
Q15: When did Delhi become the capital city under the Delhi Sultanate?
Ans : Delhi became as capital city under the Delhi Sultanate in 13 Century.
Q16: What are the important historical sources to study the history of the Delhi Sultanate?
Ans : Important historical sources to study the history of the Delhi Sultanate are coins, inscriptions and architecture and the most important sources are Histories (Tarikh (singular) or Tawarikh (plural). They were written in Persian language
Q17: Why was Razziya, the Sultana of Delhi Sultanate dethroned?
Ans : Razziya was the daughter of Iltutmish. She was appointed as the Sultana of Delhi in 1236. Minhaj-I-Siraj was a Chronicler of the age. He favored the subordination of women. Religious leaders of that period did not like a woman ruling the state. That was why, Razziya was removed from the throne in 1240
Q18: What do you understand by the terms Iqta and muqtis ?
Ans : Iqtas were the land granted to the military commanders in lieu of their salaries and holders of these territories were known as Iqtadars or muqtis
Q19: Write briefly about the invasion of the Mongols and its results ?
Ans : Invasion of the Mongols took place under Genghis Khan in the north-east Iran in 1219. During this time Delhi also was invaded. And the rule of Alauddin Khalji and Tughluq witnessed many invasions of the Mongols. Due to this reason the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate had to mobilize their army and strengthened it.
Q20: Who were Ulema? Who was Ibn Batuta?
Ans : Ulema' were the scholars of Islamic learning, who were generally orthodox in their outlook. Ibn Batuta, was a fourteenth-Century traveller from Morocco, Africa.
Long Q & A :
Q1: Explain the types of taxes which were levied on the people during the rule of the Delhi Sultan
The revenue that was collected in the form of taxes was of three types:
Q2: Write a brief note on the administration of Delhi Sultanate provinces under the Tughlaqs and the Khaljis.
Ans : The Khaljis and the Tughlaq monarchs appointed military commanders as governors of the territories of various sizes. These territories or land were called iqtas and their landholder was called iqtadars ormuqtis. They provided military services to the sultan of Delhi. In return, they could collect revenue from these lands and keep a part of it as their salary. They also paid their soldiers from these revenues. Accountants were appointed by the state to check the amount of revenue collected by the muqtis. Care was taken that muqtis collected only the taxes prescribed by the state and also maintained a required number of soldiers. The kings forced the samanta aristocrats to accept their authority.