Short Q & A :
Q1: Write short notes on Akbar's religious policy.
Ans : Akbar's liberal religious views and his marriage with the Rajput princess influenced his religious outlook. He used to hold talks with the leaders of various religions. He also built a building called Ibadat Khana at Agra to hold discussions with the religious leaders. Views were exchanged freely. He also introduced the policy of sulh-i kul. This idea of tolerance focused on honesty, justice, and peace that were universally applicable.Akbar found that all religions taught similar ideology. Thus he incorporated the principles of all the religions to found a new faith which he named Din-i-Illahi.'Din-i-Illahi' did not attract many converts and it perished with the death of Akbar.
Q2: What was Mansab system?
Ans : Mansab system was a grading system used by the Mughal rulers to fix the rank or salary of a Mansabdar, who were basically their military commanders
Q3: What important measures were taken by Akbar to consolidate his empire?
Ans : Akbar ascended the throne in 1556 A.D. He was a great ruler who took various steps to consolidate his empire. He founded an empire that was truly secular in character. Being a great warrior and conqueror Akbar extended his boundaries by conquering Gujarat, Bengal, Kashmir, Sind, Central India, Deccan states, and many other states.He followed the policy of religious tolerance and established friendly relations with the Rajputs in particular and the Hindus in general.He organized his administration on sound footing and took various steps for the welfare of his subjects.
Q4: What were the military responsibilities of Mansabdars?
Military responsibilities of Mansabdars were:
Q5: Give a brief account of the conquests of Akbar?
When Akbar was crowned in 1556 A.D. the Mughal Empire was scattered. He established a vast kingdom by conquering other kingdoms.
Q6: Describe the Rajput policy of Akbar?
Ans : Rajputs were the most powerful rivals of Mughals in north India. Knowing this Akbar adopted a special policy to handle the Rajputs. He was a far sighted ruler who knew that there could be no permanent Mughal rule in India without the support of the Rajputs. Akbar wanted to be friendly with these Rajputs states instead of subjugating. For this he adopted all possible measures like matrimonial alliances and assigning higher posts to Rajput chiefs. This made his position stronger and they became his loyal Comrades.
Q7: Write a note on Shah-Jahan military campaigns.
Ans : Shah Jahan became the ruler in 1627 A.D. Mughal campaigns continued in the Deccan under Shah Jahan. He faced rebellions of Afghan noble Khan Jahan Lodi who was defeated by him. He failed in his central Asian campaigns .The campaign to seize Balkh from the Uzbegs was unsuccessful and Qandahar was lost to the Safavids. He led various campaigns against the three Deccan states. Ahmadnagar was taken in 1633 A.D. Bijapur was submitted in 1636 A.D. and Golconda in 1665 A.D.
Q8: What were the reasons for Babur's success in the First battle of Panipat?
Following are the reasons for success of Babur in the first battle of Panipat were:
Q9: Write short notes on the religious policies of the Akbar.
Akbar's religious policy:
He followed a liberal religious policy. Full religious freedom was allowed not only to the Hindus but also to the people of other religious faith. Also, He built a building called 'Ibadat Khana' where he held discussions with the religious leaders.
Q10: Name the mothers of Jahangir and Shah Jahan.
Ans : The mother of Jahangir was a Kachhwaha princess, daughter of the Rajput ruler of Amber. The mother of Shahjahan was a Rathor princess, daughter of the Rajput ruler of Marwar.
Q11: Explain the Mughal relations with other rulers.
Ans : Mughal rulers campaigned constantly against rulers who refused to accept their authority. But as the Mughals became powerful, many other rulers joined them voluntarily. The Rajputs were a good example. Many of them married their daughters into Mughal families and received high positions. But many resisted as well.
Q12: What was Zabt and who were Zamindars?
Ans : Land revenue was the main source of income to the Mughal rulers. Revenue on each crop was fixed in cash. Each province was divided into revenue circles, with its own schedule of revenue rates for individual crops. This revenue system was known as 'zabt'.In most places, the headman or the local chieftain collected revenue from these peasants and deposited it in the royal treasury. The Mughals called these intermediaries, whether they were local headmen of villages or powerful chieftains, as zamindars.
Q13: Who were Mansabdars?
Ans : The term 'mansabdar' refers to an individual who holds a mansab, meaning a 'position or rank'. It was a grading system used by the Mughals to fix the rank, salary and military responsibilities. Rank and salary were determined by a numerical value called 'zat'. The higher the 'zat', the more prestigious was the noble's position in court and was larger his salary. 'Mansabdars' received their salaries as revenue assignments called 'jagirs' which were somewhat like iqtas.
Q14: Write short notes on Humayun.
Ans : Humayun was the second Mughal Emperor of India. He ascended the throne in 1530 AD. Humayun divided his inheritance according to the will of his father and equally distributed the province among his brothers. The ambitions of his brother Mirza Kamran weakened Humayun's cause against Afghan competitors. He was defeated by 'Shah Suri' at Chausa in 1529 A.D. and at Kanauj in 1540 A.D.which forced him to flee to Iran. He received the help from Safavid Shah to capture Delhi again in 1555 A.D. He died in the same year.
Q15: Who was Jahangir?
Ans : Jahangir became the ruler in 1605 AD. After the death of Akbar, military campaigns started by Akbar were continued by him. Jahangir married Nur Jahan. He maintained a good relationship with the Rajputs. He followed the principle of sulh-i-kul established by Akbar. He is remembered for his justice.He struck silver coins bearing his own titles on one side and on the other the inscription "struck in the name of the Queen Begum, Nur Jahan". Noor-Jahan ruled his empire when he was addicted to wine and opium. Jahangir died in 1627 AD.
Q16: Who was Babur?
Ans : Babar's real name was Zahir-ur-din. He was the ruler of a small state 'Farghana' in Central Asia. He invaded India 5 times. The vast wealth of India and poor political condition and invitation from the nobles of Delhi prompted Babar to march to Delhi. He defeated Ibrahim Lodhi the last Sultan of Lodhi dynasty at Panipat in A.D. 1526.He effectively used cannons in the first battle of Panipat. In A.D. 1527 he defeated Rana Sanga. In A.D. 1528 he defeated Rajputs in the battle of Chanderi. Before his death He had established effective control over Agra and Delhi. He died in 1530 A.D.
Long Q & A :
Q1: Describe the Mansabdari or the Jagirdari system of Mughal India.
Ans : Turkish Nobles, Indian Muslims, Afghans and Rajputs joined the Mughal services as mansabdars. Amansabdar refers to an individual who holds a mansab, meaning a rank or a position used by the Mughals to fix rank, salary and military responsibility of the individual. His military responsibility required him to maintain a specified number of sawar or cavalrymen. His salary was determined by the numerical value ofzat. The higher the numerical value of zat, the higher was his salary and position in court.Mansabdars received their salaries as revenue assignments called Jagirs. They did not actually reside in their Jagirs but appointed servants to collect revenues from the people. They even got paid on the quality of horses that they maintained.
Q2: Which principle of inheritance did Mughal's follow? How was it different from the principle that other communities follow?
Ans : The other communities followed the tradition of Primogeniture under which eldest son inherited all his parent's property and the right to rule, but Mughal's followed the principle of Timurid custom of coparcenary whereby there was a joint heir to an undivided property.
Q3: Define the following terms in one line:-
Akbarnama, Shahinshah, Sulh-i-kul, Mansabdar, Sarkar and Imperial.
Ans : Akbarnama - Biography of Akbar by Abul Fazal
Shahinshah - The Emperor
Sulh-i-kul - Peace & Harmony
Mansabdar - Military Governer
Sarkar- The province under Mughals
Imperial - Pertaining to the emperor.