Section - A
Q.1. Choose the correctly matched pair from the following. 
(a) Otto Von Bismarck – Germany
(b) Napoleon – Spain
(c) Giuseppe Garibaldi – France
(d) Bourbon Kings – Italy
Ans. (a)Otto Von Bismarck
Q.2. Identify the appropriate reason from the following options for the non-participation of industrial workers in the Civil Disobedience Movement. 
(a) Industrialists were close to the Congress
(b) British offered them good salaries
(c) They were reluctant towards the boycott of foreign goods
(d) Growth of Socialism
Explanation: There was a lack of Participation of industrial workers in the Civil Disobedience Movement because Industrialists were closer to Congress and so the workers stayed aloof.
Q.3. Name the book published by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. 
Ans. ‘Sambad Kaumudi’ was published by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.
Name the author of ‘Amar Jiban’. 
Ans. Rashsundari Debi was the author of ‘Amar Jiban’.
Q.4. Examine the significance of the Statue of Liberty in Frederic Sorrieu’s paintings, ‘The Dream of Worldwide Democratic and Social Republics’. 
- The Statue of Liberty in Frederic Sorrieu’s paintings signified liberty as a female figure with the torch of enlightenment on one hand and the charter of the Rights of Man on the other hand.
- It inspired the people of European nations to fight for their liberty from monarchial rule.
Q.5. Name the two main leaders of the ‘Khilafat Committee’ formed in the year 1919. 
Ans. Two main leaders of the Khilafat Committee formed in 1919 were Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.
Q.6. Why did the Simon Commission come to India? Identify the correct reason from the following options. 
(a) To control the campaign against the British in cities.
(b) To look into the functioning of the British.
(c) To initiate salt law in India.
(d) To suggest changes in the functioning of the constitutional system in India.
Ans. (d) To suggest changes in the constitutional system in India.
Q.7. Who invented the Printing Press? 
Ans. Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in India.
Who brought the knowledge of woodblock printing technique to Italy during the 13th century? 
Ans. Marco Polo brought the knowledge of woodblock printing technique to Italy during the 13th century.
Q.8. Which one of the following is a private sector industry? 
Ans. (b) TISCO is a private company.
Q.9. Give one example of the main commercial crop cultivable in laterite soil. 
Ans. A main commercial crop cultivated in laterite soil is tea.
Give one example of the Community Owned Resources. 
Ans. One example of a community-owned resource is a public park.
Q.10. Complete the following table with the correct information for A and B 
- A → 75 - 100 cm
- B → 21ºC - 27ºC
Q.11. Suggest any one way to enhance pilgrimage tourism through Indian Railways. 
Ans. The railways need to connect various pilgrimage places in India.
Q.12. Suggest anyone measure to promote handspun khadi in India. 
Ans. The government could provide subsidy or extend financial help to Khadi handspun industries in India.
Q.13. Correct the following statement and rewrite it. 
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) was formed under the leadership of Mayawati.
Ans. Bahujan Samaj Party was formed under the leadership of Kanshiram.
Q.14. Give anyone example of economic development in dictatorial regimes. 
Ans. In dictatorial regimes, economic development takes place because the government quickly takes the decisions and implements them without any discussions.
Example: Between 1950 and 2000, dictatorships have slightly higher rate of economic growth.
Q.15. Fill in the blank: 
Castes and the Caste system in modem India have undergone a great change because ________.
Ans. Caste and caste system in modern India has undergone a great change because of education and urbanization.
Indian Constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to profess, practise and propagate any religion because ________.
Ans. The Indian Constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion because India is a secular nation.
Q.16. What percentage of reservation is given to women in local administration in India? 
Ans. One-third of the total seats are reserved for women in local administration in India.
Which institution has been created in each State of India to conduct Panchayat and Municipal elections? 
Ans. The State Election Commission has been created in each state of India to conduct Panchayat and Municipal elections.
Q.17. Fill in the blank. 
Human Development Index (HDI) level in India can be improved through ________.
Ans. Human Development Index (HDI) level in India can be improved through providing education and better health facilities in the country.
Q.18. Choose the correct statement about factors regarding globalization in India. 
(i) Improvement in transportation technology.
(ii) Liberalization of foreign trade and foreign investment.
(iii) Favourable rules of WTO towards India in comparison to developed countries.
Choose the correct options from the codes given below:
(a) Only i and ii
(b) Only i and iii
(c) Only ii and iii
(d) Only iii
Ans. (a) Only i and ii
Q.19. Given below are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R).
Read the statements and choose the correct option. 
Assertion (A): The Government of India buys wheat and rice from farmers at fair price.
Reason (R): Public sector contributes to economic development.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true.
Explanation: Both A and R are correct, but R is not the reason for A. So Option B. Public Sector comprises companies like coal India or LIC that have specified objective in their domain. Buying and selling of food grains are welfare activities of the government.
Q.20. Krishna is working in a neighbouring field with very fewer wages. Expenses on sudden illnesses or functions in the family are also met through loans. The landowner charges an interest rate of 5 per cent per month. At Present she owes the landowner Rs.5000. Analyse the credit arrangements given above. 
Ans. Krishna is dependent on informal sources of credit. It is because she takes loans from the landowner.
Section - B
Q.21. How were the ideas of national unity in early nineteenth-century Europe closely allied to the ideology of liberalism? Explain. 
- Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism.
- It can be explained through the following points:
(i) The word ‘liberalism’ is derived from the Latin word liber meaning ‘free’. For the middle class, liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality before law. The idea of freedom and equality united the people of Europe.
(ii) Politically, liberalism emphasised the concept of government by law. People in Europe wanted to unite to overthrow the monarchy and establish democratic governments.
(iii) Since the French Revolution, liberalism stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through the Parliament.
Q.22. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow: 
From the early nineteenth century, there were intense debates around religious issues. Different groups confronted the changes happening within colonial society in different ways and offered a variety of new interpretations of the beliefs of different religions. Some criticised existing practices and campaigned for reform, while others countered the arguments of reformers. These debates were carried out in public and in print. Printed tracts and newspapers not only spread the new ideas, but they shaped the nature of the debate. A wider public could now participate in these public discussions and express their views. New ideas emerged through these clashes of opinions. This was a time of intense controversies between social and religious reformers and the Hindu orthodoxy over matters like widow immolation, monotheism, Brahmanical priesthood and idolatry. In Bengal, as the debate developed, tracts and newspapers proliferated, circulating a variety of arguments. To reach a wider audience, the ideas were printed in the everyday, spoken language of ordinary people.
(i) Analyze any one issue of intense debate around religious issues.
- One issue of intense debate around religious matters was the condition of a widowed woman in Indian society.
Example: Raja Ram Mohan Roy’s criticised the Sati system. His views were encountered by the Brahmin society.
(ii) Examine the role of print media in these debates.
- The print media played an important role in the religious debates as it helped the reformers to spread the message of reforms through newspapers, journals and magazines.
- Print not only simulated the publication of conflicting opinions amongst communities but also connected communities and people in different parts of the country.
Q.23. “Minerals are an indispensable part of our lives.” Support this statement with examples. 
Minerals are an indispensable part of our lives because:
- Almost everything that we make from a tiny pin to a large building or a ship is made from minerals.
- All means of transport that we use daily such as cars, buses, trains and autos are manufactured from minerals and run on power resources (petrol) that we obtain from the earth.
- In all stages of development, human beings have used minerals for their livelihood. Even our body requires minerals in small quantities.
“Minerals occur in various forms.” Support this statement with examples.
Minerals occur in various forms:
- In igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals occur in the crack, crevices, faults and joints. Smaller occurrences are known as veins, and larger occurrences are known as lodes.
Example: Copper and Zinc.
- In sedimentary rocks, minerals occur in ‘beds’ or ‘layers’. They have been formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata.
- Another mode of formation involves the decomposition of the surface rocks and the removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered materials containing ores.
- Some minerals occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills.
Example: Gold and Tin.
- The ocean waters too contain vast quantities of minerals.
Example: Ocean beds are rich in manganese nodules.
Q.24. Describe any three institutional reforms taken by the Indian Government in the field of agriculture. 
Three institutional reforms introduced by the Indian government in the field of agriculture are:
- The government abolished the zamindari system and consolidated small landholdings.
- It also introduced various land reforms under First Five Years Plan.
- Various credit societies have been established by the government to provide cheap loans to the farmers.
Q.25. Describe the nature of the Panchayati Raj system in India. 
Panchayati raj system in India:
- Rural local government is popularly known by the name of Panchayati Raj. It is a three-tier system. Each village or a group of villages have a gram panchayat. The ‘sarpanch’ is the head of the gram panchayat. The members of the panchayat are elected by the people of the villages. Thus, it is a democratic body.
- A few gram panchayats are grouped together to form a panchayat samiti or a block mandal. Its members are elected by all the panchayat members in the area.
- All the panchayat samitis in a district form the Zilla Parishad. Most members of the zilla parishad are elected.
- Panchayati Raj system is a democratic institution that exists in rural areas. It enables people to solve their problems locally.
Q.26. Describe the elements of Belgian model for accommodating diversities. 
Elements of Belgian model for accommodating diversities:
- The Constitution of Belgium stated that the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers should be equal in the central government. No single community could take the decision unilaterally.
- Many powers of the central government have been given to the state governments of the two regions of the country. The state governments are not subordinate to the central government.
- Brussels have a separate government in which both the communities- the Dutch and the French have equal representation. The latter accepted equal representation in the government because the Dutch-speaking community had accepted equal representation in the central government.
Describe the horizontal power-sharing arrangements.
Horizontal power-sharing arrangements:
- In horizontal power-sharing arrangement, the power is shared among different organs of the government – the executive, legislature and judiciary.
- In this power-sharing system, no organ can exercise unlimited powers as each organ checks the other. This results in balance of power among various institutions.
Example: The executive is responsible to judiciary. Judges, though are appointed by the executive, can check the functioning of the executive or laws made by the Parliament.
Q.27. How do demand deposits have the essential features of money? Explain. 
Demand deposits have the essential features of money:
- Demand deposits help in making payments in cheque.
- The facility of cheques against demand deposits makes settlement of payments possible without using cash. Such demand deposits are accepted widely as a means of payment.
- The deposits in the bank accounts can be withdrawn on showing the demand deposits.
Why do lenders ask for collateral while lending? Explain.
- Collateral is an asset that the borrower owns (like land and house) and uses this as a guarantee to a lender until the loan is repaid.
- Lenders ask for collateral while lending money because in case the borrower fails to repay the loan, the lender could sell the assets or the collateral to obtain payments.
Q.28. Suggest any three measures through which underemployment in the agriculture sector can be minimised. 
Three measures through which underemployment in the agriculture sector can be minimised are:
- The government can establish cheap credit facilities to enable small farmers to further improve their landholding such as digging a well to irrigate their fields. Increased production will ensure that underemployed family members are involved in other activities too, like transporting and selling surplus production.
- The government have to identify, locate and promote food processing industries in semi-rural areas where a large number of people are underemployed.
- The government should invest in the transportation and storage of crops and build roads so that farmers may continue to sell crops. Increased earnings will help the underemployed family members to use surplus money in further expanding agricultural activities.
Section - C
Q.29. Explain the role of Bretton Woods institutions in post-Second World War settlement. 
Role of Bretton-woods institutions in post-war settlements:
- Two Bretton-woods institutions set up after the Second World War were the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank to finance post-war reconstruction and development.
- The Bretton-woods institutions started an era of unprecedented growth of trade and income for the industrial nations and Japan.
- World trade grew between 8 percent between 1950 and 1970 and incomes at nearly 5 percent.
- Due to the growth of trade and income, unemployment averaged less than 5 percent in most industrialist countries.
- Later, developing countries too tried to invest in industries to catch up with the industrial nations. They were provided loans by the Bretton-woods institutions.
Explain the ways through which British manufacturers attempted to take over the Indian market.
Ways through which the British manufacturers attempted to take over the Indian markets:
- The British manufacturers devised various strategies to sell their products.
- The Manchester industrialists put their labels on the cloth bundles. When buyers saw ‘MADE IN MANCHESTER’ written in bold on the label, they felt confident about buying the cloth.
- Images of Indian gods and goddesses regularly appeared on the cloth labels. This was intended to create an impression that there was a divine approval of the goods that were being sold.
- The imprinted image of ‘Krishna’ or ‘Saraswati’ was also intended to make the manufacturer from a foreign land appear somewhat familiar to Indian people.
Q.30. Describe the physical and economic factors that influenced the distribution pattern of the Indian Railways network. 
Physical and economic factors that have influenced the distribution pattern of the Indian railway network:
- The railways have a dense network in the Northern Indian Plains since it is flat, fertile and rich agricultural lands. However, a large number of rivers requiring construction of bridges across their beds have posed some problems.
- Availability of economic opportunities has led to a dense railway network in industrial regions such as Mumbai and Kolkata.
- In the hilly terrain of the peninsular regions, the railway network is not dense due to numerous small hills and rivers.
- It has been extremely difficult to lay railway lines in the Himalayan regions due to high mountains, sparse population and the lack of employment opportunities.
- Similarly, it is difficult to lay railway lines in sandy deserts of Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Describe the growing importance of road transport.
Growing Importance of roadways:
- It provides door to door services.
- Construction costs of roadways are much less than other modes of transport like railways and airways.
- Roads can be laid down in even difficult terrains like in the mountainous regions.
- It is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
- Road transport is used as a feeder to the other modes of transport as they provide a link between railway stations, air and seaports.
Q.31. Define the term 'Political Party’. Explain with examples, the need of political parties in India. 
- A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government.
- Members of such a group agree on certain fundamental values, policies and programmers for society and strive to follow them in order to achieve public good.
- We need political parties because:
(i) In the absence of political parties, every candidate will be an independent candidate. Such representatives might be responsible to their constituency, but no one can then be held accountable for the running of the country as a whole.
(ii) As societies are becoming larger and more complex, there is a need for a general will that can be reached through dialogue.
(iii) Such a dialogue must be facilitated by bringing together representatives from different parts of a country. Only then can there be a responsible government.
(iv) Political parties allow democratic machinery to function smoothly. They serve as both policymakers and opposition.
(v) Parties contest elections. They put forward various policies and programmers for the electorate’s consideration. They participate in the parliamentary legislation process, form and run governments, provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes, and shape and articulate public opinion.
Q.32. "Democracy promotes dignity and freedom of the people." Examine the statement. 
Democracy promotes dignity and freedom of the people:
- In a democracy, all people have freedom of speech and expression.
- All people are considered equal before law irrespective of their caste, religion or gender. This promotes dignity of an individual.
- A democratic government is based on the idea of deliberation and negotiation. It ensures peoples’ participation.
- Democracies in India have strengthened the claims of disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunities.
- A public expression of dissatisfaction with democracy shows the success of democracies. It transforms people from the status of a subject into that of a citizen.
"Democracy is best suited to produce better results." Examine the statement.
Democracy is best suited to promote better results:
- It promotes equality among citizens and enhances the dignity of the individual. It provides a method to resolve conflicts and allows room to correct mistakes.
- A democratic government listens to people and take measures that benefit them. Non-democratic regimes often turn a blind eye to or suppress internal social differences.
- In a democratic government, the majority always needs to work with the minority so that governments function to represent the general view.
- Democracies usually develop a procedure to allow all social groups to function peacefully. This reduces the possibility of any tensions among the groups.
- In case of differences among various social groups, mechanisms are evolved to negotiate the differences among them.
Q.33. "Money cannot buy all the goods and services that you may need to live well." Explain the statement. 
Money cannot buy all goods and services that we may need to live well because:
- Money can buy all essential commodities to live. Still, it cannot buy other essential things that are required to live well such as pollution-free environment, unadulterated goods etc.
- Money also cannot buy non-material things like equal treatment, freedom, security, gender equality etc.
- Happiness is one of the most important things that is required to live well. Money cannot buy happiness.
- It cannot buy love and respect.
- Money can neither protect us from a natural calamity, nor could it save us from harmful diseases.
Q.34. Read the sources given below and answer the questions related to them 
Source A - Globalisation and the Indian economy
- As consumers in today's world, some of us have a wide choice of goods and services before us.
- The latest models of digital cameras, mobile phones and televisions made by the leading manufacturers of the world are within our reach.
- Every season, new models of automobiles can be seen on Indian roads.
Source B - Foreign trade and integration of markets
- Foreign trade creates an opportunity for the producers to reach beyond the domestic markets, i.e., markets of their own countries.
- Producers can sell their products not only in markets located within the country but can also compete in markets located in other countries of the world.
- Similarly, for the buyers, import of goods produced in another country is one way of expanding the choice of goods beyond what is domestically produced.
Source C - The struggle for fair globalization
- In the past few years, massive campaigns and representation by people's organisations have influenced important decisions relating to trade and investments at the WTO.
- This has demonstrated that people also can play an important role in the struggle for fair globalisation.
(i) Source A — Globalisation and the Indian economy
How is the impact of globalisation visible on consumers?
- Consumers have a greater choice available to them as a result of globalisation.
- The quality of goods has increased as a result of competition among producers.
- This has also reduced the prices of goods and services.
(ii) Source B — Foreign trade and integration of markets
How does foreign trade integrate the markets? Explain.
- Foreign trade has been integrating the markets of different countries as it allows the producers to cross international borders in search of cheap raw materials.
- The manufactured goods and services can now be sold in various markets of different countries.
- Foreign trade therefore, has interlinked various markets across the countries.
(iii) Source C — The struggle for fair globalisation
How do people play an important role in the struggle for fair globalisation? Explain.
- People play an important role in the struggle for fair globalisation as people in developing and underdeveloped nations have realised the unfair trade policies of world organisations (like WTO) towards the third world.
- People have campaigned against unfair policies that favour the developed countries and have been able to influence important decisions related to trade and investments.
Section - D
Q.35. (i) Two places 'A' and 'B' are marked on the given political outline map of India (on page 19). Identify these places with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked near them: 
(A) The place where the Indian National Congress session was held in 1927.
(B) The place where the Non-Cooperation Movement ended abruptly due to violence.
(ii) Locate and label any four of the following with appropriate symbols on the same given political outline map of India: 
(a) Haldia — Sea-port
(b) Pune — Software Technology Park
(c) Bhilai — Iron and Steel Plant
(d) Kakrapara — Nuclear Power Plant
(e) Hirakud — Dam
(f) Indira Gandhi Airport — International Airport
Ans. (a) (b)