Q.1. Who is a cartographer?
Ans. A cartographer is a person who draws maps.
Q.2. Hampi was the capital of which empire?
Q.3. Who were Nayanars?
Ans. Devotees of Shiva
Q.4. In which climatic conditions are citrus fruits cultivated?
Ans. Citrus fruits are cultivated in the regions marked with hot dry summers and mild rainy winters.
Q.5. What do you mean by Ecosystem?
Ans. A system formed by the interaction of all living organisms with each other is known as Ecosystem.
Q.6. When is the International Women's day celebrated?
Ans. International Women's day is celebrated on 8th March every year.
Q.7. Why temples and mosques were beautifully constructed?
Ans. Temples and mosques were beautifully constructed because they were places of worship. They were also meant to demonstrate the power, wealth and devotion of the patron. Constructing places of worship provided rulers with the chance to proclaim their close relationship with God.
Q.8. What do you mean by site? Which factors help to select a site for settlement?
Ans. The place where a building or a settlement develops is called its site.
The natural conditions for selection of an ideal site are:
(i) Favourable climate
(ii) Availability of water
(iii) Suitable land
(iv) Fertile soil
Q.9. What role does the constitution play in people's struggle for equality?
Ans. Our constitution recognises the equality of all persons. Movements and struggles for equality in India continuously refer to Indian Constitution to make their point about equality and justice for all. The fish workers in the Tawa Matsya Sangh hope that the provisions of the constitution will become a reality through their participation in the movement. By constantly referring to the Constitution, they use it as a 'living document', i.e. something that has real meaning in our lives.
Q.10. What are minerals? How are minerals important to us?
Ans. Minerals are defined as solid, inorganic, naturally occurring substances with a definite chemical formula and certain physical properties. Almost all chemical elements in the Earth's crust are associated with at least one mineral. Minerals are very important to mankind. Some are used as fuels, e.g. coal, natural gas and petroleum. They are also used in industries.
For example: Iron, gold, aluminium uranium, etc., in medicines, in fertilizers etc.
Q.11. What do you mean by an independent media? Why is it important for the media to be independent?
Ans. An independent media means that no one should control and influence its coverage of news. No one should suggest the media what can be included and what cannot be included in a news story. An independent media is important in a democracy. It is on the basis of the information that the media provides that we take action as citizens. Hence, this information must be reliable and not biased at all.
Q.12. What mainly attracts tourists to Ladakh?
Ans. Ladakh is a famous tourist place. The tourists from within the country and abroad enjoy visiting Buddhist monasteries that dot the Ladakhi landscape with their traditional 'gompas'.
The meadows and glaciers in Ladakh also attract the tourists. The ceremonies and festivities in which the local people keep themselves engaged during winter months are great attractions to the tourists.
Q.13. What were Prashastis?
Ans. Prashastis were the certificates which contained details that may be literally true. They tell us how rulers wanted to depict themselves as valiant, victorious warriors. These were composed by learned Brahmanas, who occasionally helped in the administration.
Q.14. Give reasons:
(i) Ocean water is salty.
(ii) The quality of water is deteriorating.
Ans. (i) Ocean water is salty as it contains large amount of dissolved salts.
(ii) The quality of water is deteriorating because industrial effluents and untreated water of industries get mixed into streams and rivers. Sewage water also gets mixed into these water bodies.
Q.15. Describe the working of the Assembly in brief.
Ans. Current issues are discussed in the Assembly and decisions are taken on various issues. During this time MLAs can express their opinion and ask questions related to the issue. They may give suggestions about running of the government. Those who wish can respond to the same. The concerned ministers reply to the questions and assure the assembly about the steps taken by the government about an issue.
Q.16. What did the marathas want to expand beyond the Deccan?
Ans. The marathas wanted to expand to the Deccan because of the following reasons:
1. The Marathas wanted to expand beyond the Deccan in order to decrease the Mughal influence. By the 1720s, they seized Malwa and Gujarat from the Mughals and by the 1730s the Maratha king was recognized as the overlord of the entire Deccan Peninsula.
2. They wanted to receive tribute and control trade and agriculture.
3. Also Chatrapati Shivaji was humiliated by Aurangzeb when he agreed to accept the Mughal as his overlord by making him stand along with low ranked officers.
Q.17. Who was Rosa Parks? Which incident is related to her?
Ans. Rosa Parks was an African-American woman. She was tired and refused to give her seat on a bus to a white man, on December 1, 1955. Her refusal that day started a huge agitation against the unequal ways in which African-American were treated. This came, later on to be known as the Civil Rights Movements. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, religion or national origin. It also stated that all schools would be open to African-American children and that they would no longer have to attend separate schools specially set up for them. Despite this, a majority of African- Americans continue to be among the poorest in the country.
Q.18. Explain the water cycle.
Ans. The process by which water continuously changes its form and circulates between water bodies, atmosphere and land is known as the water cycle. The sun's heat causes evaporation of water from various water bodies. Rate of evaporation depends upon the sun's heat and water absorbing capacity of the air. When the water vapour cools down, it condenses and forms clouds. Once the clouds reach saturation point, the water comes down in the form of precipitation-rain, snow, dew, sleet, etc.
Q.19. Ques 19: How are ruling and opposition party formed?
Ans. Every state in India has a Legislative Assembly. From each constituency of state, people elect one representative for the Legislative Assembly. He/ she is called the Member of Legislative Assembly i.e., MLA. These MLAs belong to different political parties. A political party whose MLAs win more than half the number of constituencies in a state can be said to be in a majority. The political party that has the majority is called the ruling party and all the other members are called the opposition. The MLAs belonging to the ruling party elect their leader who is called the Chief Minister. The Chief Minister then selects other people as Ministers.
Q.20. Fill in the blanks:
(i) The _______ prescribed the Varna rules.
(ii) Rathakaras were _______.
(iii) 84 units of villages were called _______.
(iv) Ahom tribe migrated from _______.
Q.21. Describe the ways in which the chieftains arranged for their defence.
Ans. Delhi Sultanate failed to penetrate forested areas of Gangetic plain and local Chieftains ruled that area. Ibn Battuta mentioned the following factors in his travelogues:
(i) Chieftains fortified themselves in mountains, in rocky, uneven and rugged places as well as in bamboo groves.
(ii) In India, the bamboo groves are big but not hollow. They do not catch fire easily. Chieftains lived in these bamboo forests which serves them as ramparts along with their cattle, crops and collected rain water.
(iii) These thick forests could not be easily penetrated unless attacked by powerful army with special equipments to cut down the bamboos. They maintained strong army to protect themselves when attacked.
Q.22. "Improvement in water and sanitation can control many diseases." Explain with the help of examples.
Ans. Improvement in water and sanitation can control numerous diseases especially water borne diseases. There are several diseases that spread through contaminated water, for example, cholera, malaria, jaundice, typhoid, diarrhea, dysentery, etc.
By ensuring that clean safe water is available to all, such diseases can be prevented.
1. Regular checks of water coolers, roof tops and wherever the water is stagnant should be conducted in every house. These checks could prevent mosquito breeding and could save many lives.
2. The government should check the quality of water provided at regular intervals.
3. Proper checks on waste disposal and sewerage treatment should be ensured.
Q.23. Who was the first Mughal Emperor?
(D) None of these
Q.24. Whom did Babur defeat to capture Delhi and Agra?
(A) Genghis Khan
(C) Ibrahim Lodi
(D) None of these
Ans. Ibrahim Lodi
Q.25. What is Ain-i Akbari?
(A) First part of Akbar Nama
(B) Second part of Akbar Nama
(C) Third part of Akbar Nama
(D) Fourth part of Akbar Nama
Ans. Third part of Akbar Nama
Q.26. The minister-in-charge of religious and charitable patronage was known as:
Q.27. Nur Jahan was wife of:
(D) None of these
Q.28. How have the settlements changed over a period of time?
(i) In the early times, human beings lived on trees and in caves.
(ii) When they started to grow crops, it became necessary to have a permanent home.
(iii) The settlements grew near the river valleys as water was available and land was fertile.
(iv) Human settlements became larger with the development of trade, commerce and manufacturing.
(v) Settlement flourished and civilisations developed near river valleys.
Q.29. Draw a labelled diagram of a volcano.