Q. 6. Mention the steps taken by the French to dismantle Chinese influence on Vietnam.
Ans. 1. They established French school for the Vietnamese. They wanted to replace Chinese language in school either by French or by Vietnamese.
2. Some policy makers emphasized the use of French language as the medium of instruction. They felt that through this the Vietnamese would learn about French culture and civilization.
3. In 1907, Tonkin Free School was set up to provide western style education to spread French culture.
4. In religion the French introduced Christianity in Vietnam and gave challenge to Confucianism, the Chinese religion followed by many Vietnamese.
Q. 7. Why and how were the Vietnamese used in the rat hunt in 1902-03?
Ans. In 1903, the modern part of Hanoi was struck with bubonic plague. To prevent the invasion a rat hunt started. The French used Vietnamese workers for this and paid them for each rat they killed. Since the rats had to be caught in thousands, the whole situation was going out of hand. Since the dirty work was to be done only by the Vietnamese, they began collective bargaining. Another innovative method they took was they clipped only the tail of the rat to show as proof of killing and released the rat. So the process could be repeated. Some people began to raise rats to make money. Failing miserably in preventing the menace the French had to scrap the whole programme.
Q. 8. Explain the political ideas of Phan Chu Trinh.
Ans. Phan Chu Trinh was a nationalist Vietnamese leader; he was intensely hostile to monarchy and was opposed to the idea of resisting the French with the help of the court. His desire was to establish a democratic republic. He was profoundly influenced by the democratic ideals of the west. Phan Chu Trinh rejected revolutionary ideas of Phan Bio Chau. Unlike his he did not want to wholesale rejection of the western civilization. He was inspired by the French revolutionary ideals of the liberty and equality.
Q .9. What id referred as Scholars Revolt?
Ans. The Scholars Revolt of 1868 was an early revolt against French control and spread of Christianity. It was led by angry officials at the imperial court. They organized an uprising in Ngu An and Ha Tien provinces and killed nearly a thousand catholics.
1. It was a movement which was led by officials at the imperial court in 1868.
2. The revolt was against the spread of Catholicism and French power in Vietnam.
3. More than 1000 catholics were killed in the revolt.
4. The French crushed the movement, but this uprising served to inspire other patriots to rise up against them.
Q.10. What is the significance of Vietnamese Trail? How were supplies transported?
Ans. The Vietnamese trail was an immense network of footpaths and roads which moved through Laos and Cambodia that is from North to South. The trail was used to transport men and material during the course of Vietnamese war. The Trail was improved in 1950’s. From 1967 about 20,000 Vietnamese troops came to the south every month through the trail. It had support bases and hospitals all the way.
1. The story of the Ho Chi Minh trail is one way of understanding the nature of the war that the Vietnamese fought against the United States.
2. It symbolizes how the Vietnamese used their limited resources against the biggest military power.
3. The trail was used by about 20,000 North Vietnamese troops who came to the south each month using this trail.
Q. 11. How was education used as a weapon by the Vietnamese to fight against the colonialism?
1. Vietnamese teachers and students did not blindly follow the curriculum framed by the French. Sometimes there was open opposition and at other times, there was silence resistance. As the number of teachers increased in the lower classes they quietly modified the text and criticized what was stated.
2. When a Vietnamese girl was terminated over the issue of front seat the whole school protested, and forced the authorities to take her back. It was a victory for the education class.
3. Students were inspired by patriotic feelings. By the 1920s students were forming various political parties.
4. The French sought to strengthen their rule in Vietnam through the control of education. On the other hand, the educated class wanted to use education as a mean to fight against the colonial rule
Q.12. Explain the reasons for the popularity of ‘Go East Movement’.
Ans. In the first decade of 20th century ‘Go East Movement’ became popular. In 1907-08, some 300 Vietnamese students went to Japan to acquire modern education. Their primary objective was to drive out the French from Vietnam, overthrow the puppet emperor and reestablish the Nyuyen dynasty that had been deposed by the French. Since Japan had resisted colonization by European power and had a victory over Russia in 1907, the Vietnamese drew inspiration from them. They appeal the Japanese as fellow Asians for arms and to help in driving away the French. They established a branch of Restoration society in Tokyo. But Japanese ministry of interior clamped down the movement in 1908 and main leaders were deported.
Q.13. Explain the two different visions in opposing foreign domination in Vietnam.
Ans. Some intellectuals felt that Vietnamese tradition have to be strengthened to resist the domination of the west, while the others felt that Vietnam had to learn from the west even while opposing foreign domination. The differing visions led to complex debates. In late 19th century resistance to French domination was very often led by Confucian scholars and revolutionists like Phan Boi Chan who formed the revolutionary society. Phan Chu Trinh was intensely hostile to the monarchy and was opposed to the idea of resisting the French with the help of the court. His desire was to establish a democratic republic. He was influenced by western democratic ideals.
Q.14. Evaluate the role of Vietnamese women during 1960s war period and after the war in peace time.
1. When casualties in the war increased after 1960, women in large numbers joined the war and fought selflessly and continued and resistance movement.
2. They helped in nursing the wounded, constructing underground rooms and tunnels for hiding. Along the Ho Chi Minh Trail young volunteers kept open 2195 km of strategic roads and guarded at key points.
3. They built six airstrips, neutralized tens of thousands of bombs, transported cargo, weapons and food.
4. Women militia shot down planes. For instance Nguyen Thi Xuan was reported to have shot down a jet with just twenty bullets.
5. They were young, brave and dedicated. They were not only warriors but worked with dedication in other fields also. They carried rifle in one hand and hammer in the other.
Q.15. Who were Trung Sisters?
Ans. In 1913, the nationalist leader Phan Boi Chau wrote a lay based on the lives of Trung sister who in 39-43 C.E. fought against Chinese domination. These two sisters were depicted as patriots who fought to save Vietnam from Chinese domination and were glorified and depicted in paintings and novels.
Q.16 . Examine the decisions taken about Vietnam in 1954 negotiations at Geneva.
Ans. The Vietminh was able to drive the Japanese out of Hanoi in September 1945 and set up a democratic Republic with Ho Chi Minh as president. The republic however had to face difficulties.
The French who left during the Second World War wanted to regain control after the war, they set up a puppet emperor Bao Dai and drove the Vietminh out. After a long struggle for 9 years, Bao Dai and the French troops were defeated in the battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954. The defeat of France was followed by Geneva Convention where negotiations for peace began and number of decisions was taken.
The Vietnamese were persuaded to accept and division of Vietnam. As a result North and South Vietnam were separated. Ho Chi Minh and the communists took over power in the North while Bao Dai’s regime was in power in the South
Q.17 . What was the theme of the book “the History of the loss Vietnam?
Ans. The book focused on two connected themes- the loss of sovereignty and the severing of ties with China.
Q.18 . How did the French try to suppress Hoa Hao Movement?
Ans. The French exiled the founder Huynh Phu So to Laos and sent his followers to concentration camps.
Q. 19 . What was meant by the civilizing mission of the colonizers?
Ans. The imperial European nations felt that they were the most advanced and civilized people of the world. So it was their duty to introduce modern ideas to uncivilized or barbaric (uncultured, brutal) cultures of the world. This is known as the civilizing mission of the colonizers.
Q . 20. Who was Hyn Phu So?
Ans. Hun Pu So was the founder of the Hoa Hao movement. He helped the poor and performed miracles.