Babur (1526 – 1530)
- Babur, the founder of the Mughal empire in India, traced his ancestry to the Timurid dynasty.
- Embassies from Daulat khan and Rana Sanga inviting Babur to displace Ibrahim Lodhi led to the First Battle of Panipat in 1526, and he defeated Ibrahim Lodi.
- He used an ottoman (Rumi) device in this war.
- He also heavily used Gunpowder in this war, though it was known in India in earlier times.
- He defeated Sangram Singh (Rana Sanga) of Mewar in the Battle of Khanwa in 1527, resulting in strengthening his position in the Gangetic plains.
- He defeated another Rajput ruler, Medini Rai (of Chanderi) in the Battle of Chanderi in 1528.
- He defeated the Afghan chiefs under Mahmud Lodi (brother of Ibrahim Lodi) in the Battle of Ghagra in 1529.
- He declared was as Jihad and assumed the title Gazzi after his victory.
- Died in 1530. Buried at Aram Bagh in Agra; later his body was taken to Aram Bagh, Kabul.
- Babur composed Tuzuk-i-Baburi, a Masnavi, and the Turkish translation of a well-known Sufi work.
- Tuzuk-i-Baburi was translated into Persian as Baburnama by Abdur Rahim Khankhana
- Babur also established a tradition of Gardening by laying out a number of formal gardens with running water.
- He built two mosques, one at Kabulibagh, Panipat, and another in Sambhal, Rohilkhand
Try yourself:Babur was the ruler of which Central Asian Kingdom
Humayun (1530 – 1556)
- Humayun became the Mughal Emperor on 29 December 1530 at the age of 23.
- He did a blunder by dividing his empire among his three brothers- Kamran, Hindal & Askari.
- In the Battle of Chausa, 1539, Humayun was defeated for the first time by Shershah Suri but he escaped.
- In the next year (1540) Shershah completely defeated Humayun in the Battle of Kanauj (or Biligrama) and founded the Sur dynasty.
- After the lapse of 15 years, Humayun re-captured the Empire by defeating the last Sur ruler Sikandar Shah Suri in the Battle of Sirhind, 1555. Bairam Khan, his most faithful officer, helped him in this.
- The period from 1540 to 1555 is known as the period of the temporary eclipse of the Mughal.
- Humayun died by an accidental fall from the staircase of his Library 'Shermandal' at the Puranakwila in Delhi on 24 January 1556.
- Humayun was an accomplished mathematician and astronomer. He earned the title Insan-i-Kamil (Perfect Man), among the Mughals
Try yourself:Who died by an accidental fall from the staircase?
Humayun died by an accidental fall from the staircase of his Library 'Shermandal' at the Puranakwila in Delhi on 24 January 1556.
- Humayun's biography Humayun Namah was written by Humayun's half-sister Gulbadan Begum. The language used to write this biography was a mixture of Turkish and Persian.
- The Purnakwila was constructed by Humayun but its construction was completed by Shershah.
- Humayun's tomb is situated in Delhi (the first building in India to have double domes) which was built by Haji Begum
- Humayun tomb is known as the predecessor of Tajmahal because Taj was modeled after this, also known as a dormitory of the house of Timur. Mirak Mirza Ghias was its architect.
- In 1533 Humayun built the city of Dinpanah (world refuge) in Delhi as his second capital.
Akbar (1556 – 1605)
- Akbar was crowned at Kalanaur at the age of 13 years in 1556.
- He was coronated when he was just 14 years old.
- Bairam Khan represented him in the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556 against Hemu Vikramaditya. Hemu was defeated.
- Between 1566 – 1560, Akbar ruled under Bairam Khan’s regency.
- Akbar’s armies had conquered Kashmir, Sindh, Orrisa, Central India, and also conquered Gujarat (1572- 1573) and Bengal (1574-1576).
- Akbar's last campaign was against Asirgarh, resulting in the annexation of Khandesi (1601).
- Married Raja Bharmal’s daughter in 1562 which paved the way for friendship between Rajputs and Mughals (except Mewar).
- Won Gujarat in 1572. It was in order to celebrate his victory that Akbar got the Buland Darwaza constructed at Fatehpur Sikri.
- Fought Battle of Haldighati with Maharana Pratap in which Maharana was defeated.
- Built Ibadatkhana (Hall of prayer) at Fatehpur Sikri.
- Formulated an order called Din-i-Ilahi or Tauhind-i-Ilahi in 1582. Birbal, Abul Fazal and Faizi joined the order.
- His land Revenue system was known as Todar Mal Bandobast or Zabti System.
- Also introduced the Mansabdary System to organize the nobility as well as the army.
Main Event During the Reign of Akbar
- Abolition of slavery - 1562
- Abolition of Pilgrimage Tax - 1563
- Abolition of Jizya Tax- 1564
- Ibadatkhana was built in Fatehpur Sikri - 1575
- Parliament of Religions in Ibadatkhana - 1578
- Proclamation of "Marhar" - 1579
- Proclamation of Tauhid-i-illahi - 1582
- Entire empire divided into 12 provinces [After victory of south it became 15] - 1575 to 1576
- 'Dahsala System' introduced by Todarmal - 1582
- 'Mansabdari System' introduced After victory over Gujarat - 1573 to 1574
Nine-jewels or Navratna of Akbar
- Abdul Rahim - Hindi Scholar
- Abdul Fazal - Chief Advisor
- Birbal - Wittiness
- Tansen - Singer
- Todar Mal - Finance Minister
- Mullah Do Piaza - Advisor
- Raja Man Singh - General [Senapati]
- Faizi - Poet
- Hamim Humam – Physician
Try yourself:Akbarnama was written by ___
Jahangir (1605 – 1627)
- He executed the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjun Dev, who had helped the revolting Prince Khusrau.
- His greatest failure was the loss of Kandahar to Persia in 1622.
- The most important event in Jhangir’s life was his marriage to Mehr-un-Nisa, the widow of Sher Afghani in 1611. The title of Nur-Jahan was conferred on her.
- Had a Chain of Justice outside his palace in Agra (called Zanjir-i-Adil).
- Captain Hawkins (1608-11) and Sir Thomas Roe (1615-1619) visited his court.
- Tobacco growing started during his reign. It was brought by the Portuguese.
- Painting reached its zenith during his reign.
Try yourself:What was Jahangir's autobiography’s called ?
Shah - Jahan (1628 – 1658)
Aurangzeb Alamgir (1658 – 1707)
- In his rule, various rebellions took place – Jat peasantry at Mathura, Satnami peasantry in Punjab, and Bundelas at Bundelkhand.
- He caused a serious rift in the Mughal – Rajput alliance by his policy of annexation of Marwar in 1639 after the death of Raja Jaswant Singh.
- In 1675, he ordered the arrest and execution of the ninth Sikh guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur.
- The Mughal conquests reached the territory climax during his reign, as Bijapur (1686) and Golconda (1687) were annexed to the Mughal Empire. The Mughal empire stretched from Kashmir in the north to Jinji in the south, from the Hindukush in the west to Chittagong in the east.
- He was called a ‘ Darvesh’ or a ‘Zinda Pir’. He also forbade sati.
- The empire lost power after Aurangzeb’s rule. His successors were weak and incapable rulers.
- Ambitious nobles became direct contenders of power after Aurangzeb. The Sayyid brothers (also known as King-Makers) put three principles on the throne.
- One of the generals of Nadir Shah, Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India repeatedly between 1748 – 1767. He defeated the Marathas in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. In this battle, Marathas were led by Sadashiv Rao Bhau, while the Peshwa at that time was Balaji Bajirao.
- A later Mughal emperor, Shah Alam II joined hands with Mir Qasim of Bengal and Shuja-ud-Daula of Awadh in the Battle of Buxar against the British in 1764. They were defeated by the British.
Try yourself:Which of the following is one of the results of Aurangzeb's Deccan Policy.
The Suri dynasty
- This short-lived dynasty, founded by Sher Shah Suri, ruled in Delhi (North India) from 1540 – 1555.
- Real name was Farid. Given the title Sher Shah by Babur Khan Lohani (Governor of Bihar) who appointed him Vakil (deputy).
- Became the master of Delhi after the exit of Humayun.
- Died in 1545 while campaigning against Kalinjhar Fort.
- Malik Mohammad Jaisi composed Padmavat (in Hindi) during his reign.
- Shershah constructed the Grand Trunk Road from Sohargaon to Attock (Calcutta to Amritsar). He introduced the National Highway concept for the first time in India. Now the Grand Trunk Road is known as Shershah Suri Marg. Its part from Delhi to Amritsar is known as National Highway 1.
- He also built roads from Agra to Jodhpur and Chittoor and Lahore to Multan.
- He built Sarais at a distance of every two Kms. These sarais later developed into Market towns, Qasbas. They were also used as stages for news services, Dak Chowkis.
- He built the Purana Qila in Delhi (its Construction was started by Humayun) and his own Mausoleum (Tomb) at Sasaram in Bihar.
- He also constructed the Khooni Darwaza (blood-stained gate) the gateway of Firozshah Kotla in Delhi.
Economy and Administration
- He was the first ruler to introduce Silver 'Rupiya', Copper 'Dam', and Gold coin 'Ashrafi'.
- One rupiya was equal to 64 dams.
- He abolished all old and mixed metal currency.
- Administrative divisions:
(a) Iqta - Province under Haqim or Amin
(b) Sarkar - District under Shiqdar-i-Shiqadaran or Munsif-i-Munsifan
(c) Pargana - Taluk under Shiqdar or Munsif
(d) Gram - Village under Muqqadam or Amil
- He made local Muqaddams/Zamindars responsible for local crimes.
Try yourself:Who was the first ruler to introduce Silver 'Rupiya', Copper 'Dam', and Gold coin 'Ashrafi'"
Sher Shah Suri was the first ruler to introduce Silver 'Rupiya', Copper 'Dam', and Gold coin 'Ashrafi'.