The Sangam Literature - The Sangam Age, History, UPSC UPSC Notes | EduRev

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UPSC : The Sangam Literature - The Sangam Age, History, UPSC UPSC Notes | EduRev

The document The Sangam Literature - The Sangam Age, History, UPSC UPSC Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course History for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims.
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The Sangam Literature

 Earliest Tamil Works

  • The Agattiyam was written by saint Agattiyar, is now extent in small shreds of sutras here and there, quoted by medieval commentators. 
  • The Tolkappiyam was written by Tolkappiyar, supposed to be a disciple of Agastya and a contemporary of eleven other scholars who were all disciple of the same Rishi. 
  • It is a work on Tamil grammar, literary tradition and sociology. 
  • Purapporul Venba Malai, a medieval work on the grammar of the Puram literature, says that the twelve scholars jointly produced Pannirupadalam,  a grammatical work on Puram literature. 
  • The Kakkaipadiniyam, an extinct work on prosody, is also ascribed by tradition to that period. 
  • Traditionally, Tolkappiyam is supposed to lay down the grammatical rules which governed the literary compositions of the Sangam age. 
  • The sutras of the Tolkappiyam are elaborate and extensive in range. 
  • Orthography, construction, prosody, figures of speech, social practices, literary conventions, human psychology in so far as it relates to epic and dramatic literature, the grammar of the Aham (love) and Puram (war) and the allied conventions are set forth in detail in this work. 
  • It is schematic and divided into three sections, each consisting of nine sub-chapters 
      

Know The Important Facts

  • The word ‘Sangam’ for the early Tamil literature was mentioned for the first time by the Shaiva Saint Tirunavukkarasu Naynar who belonged to the early seventh century.
  • The titles of the Cheras were: Vanavar, Villavar, Kudavar, Kuttuvar, Poraiyar, Malaiyar etc.
  • The titles of the Cholas: Sennis, Sembiyas, Valavan and Killi.
  • The titles of the Pandyas: Minavar, Kavuriyar, Panchavar, Tennar, Seliyar, Marar, Valudi etc.
  • The Chera king Udiyanjeral was called Vanavaramban and Perujoran Udiyan by the poet Mudinagarayar in Puram.
  • According to Silappad-karam, Pirakotitiya Senaguttuvan was the founder of the famous Pattini cult.
  • According to a tradition recorded in Manimekalai, a good part of the port town of Puhar was engulfed by the sea in terrific tidal waves, during the reign of the later Chola king Killivalavan.
  • According to Silappadi-karam, Nedunjelian, in a fit of passion, ordered without judicial enquiry the execution of Kovalan, the hero of Silappadikaram.
  • The king was called Ko, Mannam, Vendan, Korravan or Iraivan.
  • Soldiers were rewarded by the grant of maraya (military honour or fief) and the enadi title for particular act of heroism.
  • Kadimaram or a Kavalmaram is a tutelary tree. It was believed that the tree had the power to protect the town.
  • Viralis were the professional dancing girls.
  • Yal and Padalai were the musical instruments.
  • Tunaigai and alliyam were the dance forms.
  • Pulaiyars were the craftmen who handled their needles with deftness.
  • Panik-Kalari was an important industrial ‘factory’ where weapons of war were forged and repaired.
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