Other ways of Transformation of Sentences
(a) Sentences with the Adverb too can be transformed as follows :
Simple : He speaks too fast to be understood.
Complex : He speaks so fast that he is not understood.
Simple : This tree is too high for me to climb.
Complex : This tree is so high that I cannot climb it.
Simple : He was too small to reach up to the branches of the tree.
Complex : He was so small that he could not reach up to the branches of the tree.
Simple : She is too clever not to see through your tricks.
Complex : She is so clever that she will be through your tricks.
Simple : These mangoes are too cheap to be good.
Complex : These mangoes are so cheap that they cannot be good.
Simple : The news is too good to be true.
Complex : The news is so good that it cannot be true.
(b) Sentences expressing a Condition.
Double : Work hard and you will succeed.
Complex : If you work hard, you will succeed.
Complex : Should you work hard, you will succeed.
Compound : Unless you work hard you will not succeed.
Simple : It is never too late to mend.
Complex : It is never so late for anything that it cannot be mended.
(c) Sentences expressing Concession or Contrast.
He is honest though poor.
Poor as he is, he is honest.
Although he is poor, he is honest.
In spite of his poverty, he is honest.
For all his poverty, he is honest.
Admitting that he is poor, he is honest.
He is poor; all the same he is honest.
(d) Interchange of Degrees of Comparison.
Positive : This book is not so good as that.
Comparative : That book is better than this.
Positive : Birds do not fly so fast as the aeroplane.
Comparative : The aeroplane flies faster than birds.
Positive : I am a strong as he.
Comparative : He is not stronger than I.
Positive : This razor is not as sharp as that one.
Comparative : The razor is sharper than this one.
Positive : Few historians write as interestingly as Joshi.
Comparative : Joshi writes more interestingly than most historians.
Positive : No other boy in the class is as good as Ram.
Comparative : Ram is better than any other boy in the class.
(e) Interchange of one part of speech for another.
Preposition : I have not seen him since last Monday.
Adverb : I saw him on last Monday but I have not seen him since.
Adverb : He gets up early in the morning.
Adjective : He gets up in early morning.
Combination of two or more Simple Sentences into a single Compound sentence
Simple sentences may be combined to form compound sentences by the use of co-ordinative conjunctions. These are of four kinds :
(ii) Adversative ;
(iii) Alternative; and
Let us take a few sentences :
Night came on. The room grew dark.
— Night came on and the room grew dark.
He is a fool. He is a knave.
— He is a fool and a knave.
— He is both a fool and a knave.
— He is not only a fool but also a knave.
— He is a fool as well as a knave.
The wind blew. The rain fell. The lightening flashed.
— The wind blew, the rain fell and the lightening flashed.
It is found that the conjunction and simply adds one statement to another.
The conjunctions both ... and, not only.... but also, as well as are emphatic forms of and do the same work.
Combination of two or more Simple sentences into a single Complex sentence
Subordinate Clause a Noun Clause
You are drunk. That aggravates your offence.
— That you are drunk aggravates your offence.
He will be late. That is certain.
— It is certain that he will be late.
You are repentant. I will not forget it.
— I will not forget that you are repentant.
He may be innocent. I do not know.
— I do not know whether he is innocent.
He is short-sighted. Otherwise he is fit for the post.
— Except that he is short-sighted he is fit for the post.
The clouds would disperse. That was our hope. Our hope was cheering.
— Our hope, that the clouds would disperse, was cheering.
The game was lost. It was the consequence of his carelessness.
— The consequence of his carelessness was that the game was lost.
Subordinate Clause an Adjective Clause
A fox once met a lion. The fox had never seen a lion before.
— A fox who had never seen a lion before met him.
She keeps her ornaments in a safe. This is the safe.
— This is the safe where she keeps her ornaments.
A cottager and his wife had a hen. The hen laid an egg everyday. The egg was golden.
— A cottager and his wife had a hen which laid a golden egg everyday.
Subordinate Clause an Adverb Clause
Queen Victoria died in 1901. The Prince of Wales thereafter became king.
— When Queen Victoria died in 1901, the prince of Wales became king.
I waited for my friend. I waited till his arrival.
— I waited for my friend until he came.
He fled somewhere. His pursuers could not follow him.
— He fled where his pursuers could not follow him.
Let them sow anything. They will reap its fruit.
— As men sow, so shall they reap.
You are strong. I am equally strong.
— I am as strong as you are.
He was not there. I spoke to his brother for that reason.
— As he was not there, I spoke to his brother.
We wish to live. We eat for that purpose.
— We eat that we may live.
He was quite tired. He could scarcely stand.
— He was so tired that he could scarcely stand.
Don't eat too much. You will be ill.
The Sequence of Tenses
The Sequence of Tenses is the principal in accordance with which the Tense of the verb in a subordinate clause follows the Tense of the verb in the principal clause.
The sequence of Tenses applies chiefly to Adverb Clauses of purpose and Noun Clauses.
A Past Tense in the principal clause is followed by a Past Tense in the subordinate clause.
He hinted that he wanted money.
She replied that she felt better.
I found out that he was guilty.
He saw that the clock had stopped.
He replied that he would come.
I never thought that I should see him again.
I took care that he should not hear me.
They climbed higher that they might get a better view.
I worked hard. That I might succeed.
Exceptions : (i) A Past Tense in the principal clause may be followed by a Present Tense in the subordinate clause when the subordinate clause expresses a universal truth.
Newton discovered that the force of gravitation makes apples fall.
Galileo maintained that the Earth moves round the Sun.
Educlid proved that the three angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles.
He said that honesty is the best policy.
(ii) When the subordinate clause is introduced by than, even if there is a Past Tense in the principal clause, it may be followed by any tense required by the sense in subordinate clause.
He liked you better than he likes me.
He helped him more than he helps his own children.
I then saw him often than I see him now.
He valued his friendship more than he values mine.
Classification of Sentences
Two wickets fell at twenty.
Rome was not built in a day.
In these two sentences, there is only one finite verb.
Finite means full i.e., a verb with a subject.
Hence, a sentence that contains only one finite verb as called a Simple Sentence. So a simple sentence contains only one subject and one predicate.
I came to know that six wickets had fallen before lunch.
The team that wins the toss usually chooses to bat.
When the ninth-wicket partnership was broken, I felt that we might hope to win the match.
In each of these three sentences above, has one Main or Principal clause and one subordinate clause or more depending on it.
All these sentences are called Complex sentences.
Hence, a sentence that contains only one Main or Principal clause and one or more than one subordinate clause is called a Complex Sentence.
Double and Multiple Sentences
Actually, there are only two kinds of sentences : Simple and Complex sentences. But, others are a mixture or compound of these two kinds.
Our hoards are little but our hearts are great.
Do or die. Neither a borrower nor a lender be.
I went in but missed you and so I left.
In these sentences, two or more co-ordinate clauses are joined by the conjunction and, but, or and nor. These are called Double or Multiple sentences.
A Double sentence is one which consists of two co-ordinate clauses.
A Multiple sentence is one which is composed of more than two co-ordinate clauses.
Double and Multiple sentences are also called
There are four different kinds of Dobule and Multiple sentences composed of —
(i) two or more Simple sentences.
We make our fortunes and we call them fate.
(ii) two or more Complex sentences.
A custom officer discovered a passenger who had hidden a watch in his inside pocket and the latter made matters worse by trying to bribe the officer who happened to be very honest.
(iii) a Simple sentence and a Complex sentence.
He is poor but I know that he is honest.
(iv) a Complex sentence and a Simple sentence.
I told them why I stole it but they laughed at me.