Transport in India (Part -2) - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy

Created by: Mehtab Ahmed

UPSC : Transport in India (Part -2) - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

The document Transport in India (Part -2) - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course Geography (Prelims) by Valor Academy.
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Transport in India

Water Transport in India

Transport in India (Part -2) - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Water Transport in India

  • Most efficient, least costly and environment friendly means of transportation.
  • Water transport is of two types:
    • Inland waterways
    • Oceanic waterways

Inland waterways

  • The total length of navigable waterways in India comprising rivers, canals, backwaters, etc.
  • India has 14,500 km of navigable waterways out of which 3700 km is navigable by mechanised boats.
  • It contributes 1% of the country’s transportation.

Inland Waterways Authority

  • For the development, maintenance and regulation of national waterways in the country, the Inland Waterways Authority was set up in 1986.
  • The authority has declared 4 inland waterways as National Waterways

Transport in India (Part -2) - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

National Waterways of India

  • NW 1: Allahabad to Haldia – 1,620 km
  • NW 2: Sadia to Dhubari (on Brahmaputra river) – 891 km
  • NW 3: Kottapuram-Kollam stretch of the West Coast Canal, Champakara Canal and Udyogmandal Canal – 205 km

Transport in India (Part -2) - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

  • NW 4: Kakinada to puducherry stretch of Canals and the Kaluvelly Tank, Bhadrachalam – Rajahmundry stretch of River Godavari and Wazirabad – Vijayawada stretch of River Krishna– 1,095 km

Transport in India (Part -2) - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Transport in India (Part -2) - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Transport in India (Part -2) - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Transport in India (Part -2) - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Ports in India

  • The Waterways Authority in India divides Indian ports into three categories, major, minor and intermediate.
  • India has about 190 ports in all, with 12 major and the rest intermediate and minor.
  • All these ports are administered by the respective Port Trusts, except the newly constructed Ennore port which is under the Ennore Port Ltd. Company. 

 

Port

State

Kolkata (including Haldia)

West Bengal

Paradip

Orissa

Vishakhapatnam

Andhra Pradesh

Chennai

Tamil Nadu

Ennore

Tamil Nadu

Tuticorin

Tamil Nadu

Cochin

Kerala

New Mangalore

Karnataka

Mormugao

Goa

Jawaharlal Nehru

Maharashtra

Mumbai

Maharashtra

Kandla

Gujarat

 

Transport in India (Part -2) - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Salient Features :

Kolkata Port (including Haldia) :

  • Kolkata is a riverine port, located about 128 km from the Bay of Bengal on the banks of river Hooghly. 
  • Haldia was developed because excessive silting prevented the entry of large marine vessels in Kolkata.

 

Paradip Port :

  • Located on the Orissa coast along the Bay of Bengal. 
  • India exports raw iron to Japan from here.

Vishakhapatnam Port :

  • The deepest port, located in Andhra Pradesh. 
  • It serves the Bhilai and Rourkela steel plants.

Transport in India (Part -2) - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRevTransport in India (Part -2) - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

 

Tuticorin Port :

  • It came into existence during the reign of Pandya kings. 
  • It has an artificial deep sea harbour.

Cochin Port :

  • A fine natural harbour located on Kerala coast. 
  • Handles the export of tea, cofee and spices and import of petroleum and fertilisers.

 

New Mangalore Port :

  • The ‘Gateway of Karnataka’. 
  • Handles the export of iron-ore of Kudremukh.

Marmugao Port :

  • It has a naval base. 
  • India’s leading iron-ore port.

Mumbai Port :

  • A natural port, India’s busiest. 
  • A new port, Nhava Sheva, developed near Mumbai port.

 

Jawaharlal Nehru Port :

  • Occupies the 5th position in the world’s faster growing ports.

Kandla Port :

  • Called the ‘offspring of partition’ as it was developed after the partition as a substitute of Karachi port. 
  • It is a tidal port and a free trade zone located in the Rann of Kachchh.

 

Air Transport

  • It is the fastest means of movement
  • Air transport made a beginning in 1911 when airmail operation commenced over a little distance of 10 km between Allahabad and Naini 
  • Its real development took place in post-independence period

Airport Authority of India

  • Airport Authority of India is responsible for providing safe, efficient air traffic and aeronautical communication services in the Indian air space.
  • The authority manages 126 airports including 12 International airports
  • The air transport in India is managed by two corporations, Air India and Indian Airlines after nationalisation
  • In 1953, all the private Airline companies were nationalised and Indian Airlines and Air India came into existence.
  • Air India administers international flights while Indian Airlines caters to the domestic circuit.
  • Indian Airlines is now known by the name of ‘Indian’.
  • Vayudoot Limited started in 1981 as a private air carrier and later on it merged with Indian Airlines.
  • Pawan Hans Limited operates helicopter support services to oil sector, hill stations and remote areas.
  • Indian Airlines is now known by the name of ‘Indian’.
  • Vayudoot Limited started in 1981 as a private air carrier and later on it merged with Indian Airlines.
  • Pawan Hans Limited operates helicopter support services to oil sector, hill stations and remote areas.
  • A number of private airlines also operates is India. 
  • They are Jet Airways, Sahara, etc.
  • The Civil Aviation Centre in Fursatganj near Allahabad provided, among other things, ground training to the pilots.

Transport in India (Part -2) - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Airports in India :

  • There are 12 International Airports in India :
    1. Begumpet Airport, Hyderabad
    2. Calicut International Airport, Calicut
    3. Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Mumbai
    4. Chennai International Airport, Chennai
    5. HAL Airport, Bangalore
    6. Goa Airport in Vasco da Gama city, Goa
    7. Lokpriya Gopinath Bordolio International Airport, Guwahati 
    8. Indira Gandhi International Airport, Delhi
    9. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport, Kolkata
    10. Rja Sansi International Airport, Amritsar
    11. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport, Ahmedabad 
    12. Thiruvananathapuram International Airport, Thiruvananathapuram 

Transport in India (Part -2) - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRevTransport in India (Part -2) - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Pipeline Transport

  • Pipelines are the most convenient and efficient mode of transporting liquids, gases over long distances
  • Even solids can be transported by pipelines after converting them into slurry

 

Merits & Demerits

Merits 

  • 1. Pipelines are laid through water as well difficult and different type of terrains.
  • 2. The operational and maintenance cost of pipelines is very less. 

Demerits

  • detection of leakage, repairing, safety and security of the pipelines. 

 

Pipelines

  • Asia’s first cross country pipeline covering a distance of 1157 km was constructed by Oil India limited from Naharkatiya oilfields in Assam to Barauni refinery in Bihar.
  • It was further extended up to kanpur in 1966

 

Some other important pipelines are:

  • Ankaleshwar- koyali 
  • Mumbai High- koyali 
  • Hajira- Vijaipur- Jagdishpur 
  • Salaya- Mathura
  • Numaligarh – Siliguri 
  • Paradip-Haldia-Barauni 
  • Haldia - Barauni Pipeline
  • Mathura-Delhi Pipeline
  • Panipat-Ambala-Jalandhar Pipeline (PAJPL)
  • Panipat-Delhi Pipeline (PDPL)
  • Panipat-Bhatinda Pipeline 

Transport in India (Part -2) - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

Transport in India (Part -2) - Indian Geography, UPSC, IAS. UPSC Notes | EduRev

 

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