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UPSC Optional Subject Syllabus: Electrical Engineering Notes - UPSC

Document Description: UPSC Optional Subject Syllabus: Electrical Engineering for UPSC 2022 is part of UPSC preparation. The notes and questions for UPSC Optional Subject Syllabus: Electrical Engineering have been prepared according to the UPSC exam syllabus. Information about UPSC Optional Subject Syllabus: Electrical Engineering covers topics like Paper ‐ I, Paper - II and UPSC Optional Subject Syllabus: Electrical Engineering Example, for UPSC 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for UPSC Optional Subject Syllabus: Electrical Engineering.

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Table of contents
Paper ‐ I
Paper - II
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Paper ‐ I

1. Circuits—Theory

  • Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; Circuit analysis methods : nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis : RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits; coupled circuits; balanced 3-phase circuits. Two-port networks.

2. Signals and Systems

  • Representation of continuous-time and discrete-time signals and systems; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; time-domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Transfer function. Sampling and recovery of signals DFT, FFT Processing of analog signals through discrete-time systems.

3. E.M. Theory

  • Maxwell’s equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and refraction of plane waves. Transmission lines : travelling and standing waves, impedance matching, Smith chart.

4. Analog electronics

  • Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signal) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits : Clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Current mirror; Amplifiers : single and multi-stage, differential, operational feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency-response of amplifiers. OPAMP circuits. Filters; sinusoidal oscillators : criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and OPAMP configurations. Function generators and wave-shaping circuits. Linear and switching power supplies.

5. Digital Electronics 

  • Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits : arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories. Logic implementation using programmable devices (ROM, PLA, FPGA).

6. Energy Conversion

  • Principles of electromechanical energy conversion : Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC machines : characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors. Transformers : principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers. 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines : characteristics and performance analysis; speed control. 

7. Power Electronics and Electric Drives 

  • Semi-conductor power devices: diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET-static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters : fully-controlled and half-controlled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; DC-DC converters; Switch mode inverter; basic concepts of speed control of dc and ac motor drives applications of variable-speed drives. 

8. Analog Communication 

  • Random variables: continuous, discrete; probability, probability functions. Statistical averages; probability models; Random signals and noise : white noise, noise equivalent bandwidth; signal transmission with noise; signal to noise ratio. Linear CW modulation : Amplitude modulation : DSB, DSB-SC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation : PM & FM signals; narrows band FM; generation & detection of FM and PM, Deemphasis, Preemphasis. CW modulation system : Superhetrodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers, phase locked loop, SSB receiver Signal to noise ratio calculation or AM and FM receivers.

Paper - II

1. Control Systems

  • Elements of control systems; block-diagram representations; open-loop & closed-loop systems; principles and applications of feed-back. Control system components. LTI systems : time-domain and transform-domain analysis. Stability : Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Bode-plots and polor plots, Nyquist’s criterion; Design of lead-lad compensators. Proportional, PI, PID controllers. State-variable representation and analysis of control systems. 

2. Microprocessors and Microcomputers

  • PC organisation; CPU, instruction set, register settiming diagram, programming, interrupts, memory interfacing, I/O interfacing, programmable peripheral devices. 

3. Measurement and Instrumentation 

  • Error analysis; measurement of current voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurements. Signal conditioning circuit; Electronic measuring instruments : multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyser, distoration-meter. Transducers : thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-guage, piezo-electric crystal. 

4. Power Systems: Analysis and Control 

  • Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices; load flow; voltage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concepts of system stability : swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission. 

5. Power System Protection 

  • Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays. Circuit brakers. Computer aided protection : introduction; line, bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric relays and application of DSP to protection. 

6. Digital Communication

  • Pulse code modulation (PCM), defferential pulse code modulation (DPCM), delta modulation (DM), Digital modulation and demodulation schemes : amplitude, phase and frequency keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Error control coding : error detection and correction, linear block codes, convolation codes. Information measure and source coding. Data networks, 7-layer architecture.
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