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UPSC Optional Subject Syllabus: Philosophy Notes - UPSC

Document Description: UPSC Optional Subject Syllabus: Philosophy for UPSC 2022 is part of UPSC preparation. The notes and questions for UPSC Optional Subject Syllabus: Philosophy have been prepared according to the UPSC exam syllabus. Information about UPSC Optional Subject Syllabus: Philosophy covers topics like Paper - I, Paper - II and UPSC Optional Subject Syllabus: Philosophy Example, for UPSC 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for UPSC Optional Subject Syllabus: Philosophy.

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Table of contents
Paper - I
Paper - II
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Paper - I

History and Problems of Philosophy

  • Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality. 
  • Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz): Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom. 
  • Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism. 
  • Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God 
  • Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism 
  • Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing. 
  • Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions. 
  • Later Wittgenstein: Meaning and Use; Language- games; Critique of Private Language. 
  • Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism. 
  • Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the –world and Temporality. 
  • Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons. 
  • Carvaka: Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent Entities. 
  • Jainism: Theory of Reality; Saptabhaòginaya; Bondage and Liberation. 
  • Schools of Buddhism: Pratîtyasamutpada; Ksanikavada, Nairatmyavada 
  • Nyaya- Vaiúesika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of Pramana; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation. 
  • Samkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation 
  • Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya. 
  • Mimamsa: Theory of Knowledge 
  • Schools of Vedanta: Brahman; Îúvara; Atman; Jiva; Jagat; Maya; Avidya; Adhyasa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda 
  • Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.

Paper - II

Socio-Political Philosophy

  • Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty.
  • Sovereignty: Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya.
  • Individual and State: Rights; Duties and Accountability
  • Forms of Government: Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy.
  • Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism
  • Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism.
  • Crime and Punishment: Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital Punishment.
  • Development and Social Progress.
  • Gender Discrimination: Female Foeticide, Land and Property Rights; Empowernment.
  • Caste Discrimination: Gandhi and Ambedkar

Philosophy of Religion

  • Notions of God: Attributes; Relation to Man and the World. (Indian and Western).
  • Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western).
  • Problem of Evil.
  • Soul: Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation.
  • Reason, Revelation and Faith.
  • Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and Western).
  • Religion without God.
  • Religion and Morality.
  • Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth.
  • Nature of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitivist and Noncognitive.
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