Verb CLAT Notes | EduRev

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CLAT : Verb CLAT Notes | EduRev

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Action words are called verbs. (Latin word verbum = work).

Verb CLAT Notes | EduRev

TENSES

A tense is a form of verb which shows the time at which an action happens. (Latin word tempus = time).

INDEFINITE/SIMPLE TENSE:

1. SIMPLE PRESENT

Simple Present Tense is used:

  • To express habitual action.
    He smokes.
    I always take my tea without sugar.      

It is used with the adverbs usually, generally, occasionally, rarely, always, often, sometimes on Sundays, once a week/month/year, etc.

  • To express general or universal truths.
    The sun rises in the east.
    Water boils at 100°C.
     
  • To express a fact or something which is true at present.
    All trains stop at this station.
    She teaches English in a school.
     
  • To express future actions planned in advance, especially concerning a journey or programme.
    The train leaves at six in the morning. 
    Schools close in May for summer vacation and reopen in June.
     
  • To introduce quotations with the verb ‘say’.
    The notice says, “No parking.”
    Keats says, “A thing of beauty is a joy forever.”
     
  • In running commentaries on sporting events.
    Ajit passes the ball to Mohinder who kicks it past the goalkeeper.
     
  • In exclamatory sentences beginning with ‘here’ and ‘there’.
    There goes the bell!   
    Here comes the train!
     
  • In ‘Time Clauses’ and ‘Conditional Clauses’ in place of future tense.
    We shall start when the sun rises.   
    If you work hard, you will succeed.
     

AFFIRMATIVE
S+V1 (s, es)+O

NEGATIVE
S+do/does+not+V1+O

I play.I do not play.
We play.We do not play.
You play.You do not play.
He/She/It plays.He/She/It does not play
They play.They do not play.
Ravi plays.Ravi does not play
Boys play.Boys do not play.

 

INTERROGATIVE
Do / Does + S + V+ O(?)

NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
Do/Does + S + not +V1+O (?)

Do I play?Do I not play?
Do we play?Do we not play?
Do you play?Do you not play?
Does he/she/it play?Does he/she/ it not play?
Do they play?Do they not play?
Does Ravi play?Does Ravi not play?
Do boys play?Do boys not play?


2. SIMPLE PAST

Simple Past Tense is used:

  • To express a past event or past action. The action is completely unrelated to the present. It is therefore, used:

(i) When the time is given:
I met him yesterday.
 She died in 1987.

(ii) When the time is not given, but it is implied and definite:
I bought this pen in Bombay.

(iii) When the time is asked for:
When did you meet him?

  • To express a past habit or regular action in the past.

Every day he read a chapter of the Gita.
 He never smoked.

 

AFFIRMATIVE
 S+V2+O
NEGATIVE
 S+did+not+V1+O
I played.I did not play.
We playedWe did not play.
You played.You did not play.
He/she/it played.He/she/ it did not play.
They played.They did not play.
Ravi played.Ravi did not play.
Boys played.Boys did not play.
INTERROGATIVE
 Did + S+V1+O (?)
NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
 Did + S + not + V1 + O (?)
Did I play?Did I not play? 
Did we play?Did we not play?
Did you play?Did you not play?
Did he/she/it play?Did he/she/it not play?
Did they play?Did they not play?
Did Ravi play?Did Ravi not play?
Did boys play?Did boys not play?

 

3. SIMPLE FUTURE

Simple Future Tense is used:

  • To express an action that has still to take place: 

       He will play cricket tomorrow.

AFFIRMATIVE
 S+will/shall+O
NEGATIVE
 S+will/shall+not+V1+O
I shall play.I shall not play.
We shall play.We shall not play.
You will play.You will not play.
He/she/it will play.He/she/ it will not play.
They will play.They will not play.
Ravi will play.Ravi will not play.
Boys will play.Boys will not play.
INTERROGATIVE
 Will/Shall + S+V1+O (?)
NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
 Will/Shall + S + not + V1 + O (?)
Will I play?Will I not play? 
Will we play?Will we not play?
Will you play?Will you not play?
Will he/she/it play?Will he/she/it not play?
Will they play?Will they not play?
Will Ravi play?Will Ravi not play?
Will boys play?Will boys not play?

 

CONTINUOUS/PROGRESSIVE TENSE

1. PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

The Present Continuous is used:

  • To express an action happening now at the time of speaking.
    I am writing a letter. 
    She is reading a book.
     
  • To express an action in progress about this time but not necessarily at the time of speaking.
    He is teaching English at the High School.
    They are building a new house.
     
  • To express a definite arrangement in the near future.
    I am going to London next week.
    I am meeting her tonight.

The following verbs are not normally used in the present continuous tense:

  • Verbs of senses: see, hear, smell, notice, recognize.
  • Verbs of emotions: want, desire, love, hate, forgive, like, dislike, etc.
  • Verbs of thinking: think, feel, know, mean, realize, understand, suppose, believe, remember, forget, expect, etc.
  • Verbs expressing possession: have, own, belong, possess.
  • Verbs like seem, appear, contain, consist, keep, etc.

These verbs are used in the simple present tense. They may, however, be used in the continuous tense with a changed meaning.

The headmaster is seeing the student in the afternoon. (meeting)

The judge is hearing the case tomorrow. 

 

AFFIRMATIVE
 S+is/am/are+V1+ing+O
NEGATIVE
 S+is/am/are+not+V1+ ing+O
I am playing.I am not playing.
We are playing.We are not playing.
He/she/it is playing.He/she/it is not playing.
They are playing.They are not playing.
Ravi is playing.Ravi is not playing.
Boys are playing.Boys are not playing.

 

INTERROGATIVE
 Is/am/are+S+V1+ing+  O(?)
NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
 Is/am/are+Sub+not+ V1+ing+O(?)
Am I playing?Am I not playing?
Are we playing?Are we not playing?
Are you playing?Are you not playing?
Is he/she/ it playing?Is he/she/it not playing?
Are they playing?Are they not playing?
Is Ravi playing?Is Ravi not playing?

 

2. PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

The Past Continuous Tense is used:  

  • To express an action that was in progress at some time in the past.
    I was taking my bath at 8 o’ clock.
    I was playing in the garden when he came.
  • To express two or more actions in progress at the same time. 
    While I was doing my homework, my brother was playing outside.
    The students were talking when the teacher was writing on the black board.
     
  • To express an often repeated (undesirable) past action.
    She was always taunting him.
    He was always coming at odd hours.

 

AFFIRMATIVE
 S+was/were+V1+ ing+O
NEGATIVE
 S+was/were+not+V1+ ing+O
I was playing.I was not playing.
We were playing.We were not playing.
He/she /it was playing.He/she/it was not playing.
They were playing.They were not playing.
Ravi was playing.Ravi was not playing.
Boys were playing.Boys were not playing.

 

INTERROGATIVE
 Was/were+S+ V1+ ing+O (?)
NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
 Was/were+S+ not+V1+ ing+O (?)
Was I playing? Was I not playing?
Were we playing?Were we not playing?
Was he/she/it playing?Was he/she/it not playing?
Were they playing?Were they not playing?
Was Ravi playing?Was Ravi not playing?
Were boys playing?Were boys not playing?

 

3. FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

The Future Continuous is used:

  • To express an action as going on at some time in future: 
    When I reach there, he will be reading a book.
     
  • To express future events that are planned: 
    He will be coming here for Diwali Puja.  

 

AFFIRMATIVE
 S+will/shall+be+V1+ ing+O
NEGATIVE
 S+will/shall+not+be+V1+ ing+O
I shall be playing.I shall not be playing.
We shall be playing.We shall not be playing.
He/she /it will be playing.He/she/it will not be playing.
They will be playing.They will not be playing.
Ravi will be playing.Ravi will not be playing.
Boys will be playing.Boys will not be playing.

 

INTERROGATIVE
 Will/Shall+S+be+V1+ ing+O
 
NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE
 Will/Shall+S+not+be+V1+ ing+O
Shall I be playing? Shall I not playing?
Shall we be playing?Shall we not be playing?
Will he/she/it be playing?Will he/she/it not be playing?
Will they be playing?Will they not be playing?
Will Ravi be playing?Will Ravi not be playing?
Will boys be playing?Will boys not be playing?
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