Q.1. How had the Napoleonic Code exported to the other regions under French control? Explain with examples. (3 Marks)
Napoleonic Code exported to the regions under French Control:
(i) Simplified administrative divisions.
(ii) Abolished feudal system.
(iii) Freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
(iv) In towns, guild restrictions were removed.
(v) Transport and communication systems improved.
(vi) Any other relevant point.
The Napoleonic Code was exported to the regions under French Control:
(i) In the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in Italy, and in Germany, Napoleon simplified administrative divisions, abolished the feudal system, and freed peasants from seldom and manorial dues.
(ii) In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed. Transport and communication systems were improved. Peasants, artisans, workers, and new businessmen enjoyed newfound freedom.
(iii) Businessmen and small-scale producers of goods, in particular, began to realise that uniform laws, standardised weights, and measures, and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
Q.2. Explain any three provisions of the Treaty of Vienna of 1815.
What was the impact of the Treaty of Vienna (1815) on European people? Write any three points. (3 Marks)
Provisions of Treaty of Vienna (1815):
Q.3. Describe the events of the French Revolution which had influenced the people belonging to other parts of Europe. (3 Marks)
The events of the French Revolution which had influenced the people belonging to other parts of Europe:
(i) Students and other members of the educated middle class began to set up Jacobin clubs.
(ii) Their activities and campaigns paved the way for the French armies which moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and large parts of Italy.
(iii) Due to the outbreak of various revolutionary wars the French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad. Thus, a sense of collective identity was brought in.
Q.4. Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follow: (3 Marks)
(i) What was Romanticism? What was the major objective of the romantic artists and poets? [SOURCE A: The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling]
(ii) Where was textile production mainly carried out and what was the condition of industrialization in this industry? [SOURCE B: Hunger, Hardship and Popular Revolt]
(iii) What were the major consequences of the events of February 1848 in France? [SOURCE C: 1848: The Revolution of the Liberals] (3 Marks)
Ans. (i) Romanticism was a cultural movement that sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. The major objective of romantic artists and poets was to create a sense of a shared collective heritage, a common cultural past, as the basis of a nation.
(ii) Textile production was carried out mainly in homes or small workshops and was only partly mechanized.
(iii) Events of February 1848 in France had brought about the abdication of the monarch and a republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed. In other parts of Europe where independent nation-states did not yet exist - such as Germany, Italy, Poland, the AustroHungarian Empire – men and women of the liberal middle classes combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification.
Q.5. Why was the period of 1848 considered the phase of the revolution of the Liberals in Europe? Explain. (5 Marks)
The period of 1848 was considered as phase of the revolution of the Liberals in Europe because of the following reasons:
Q.6. Write a note on the role of women in nationalist struggles. (3 Marks)
Q.7. ‘While it is easy enough to represent a ruler through a portrait or a statue, how does one go about giving a face to a nation.” Examine this statement in the context of European nationalism in five points.
How had the female figures become an allegory of the nation during the nineteenth century in Europe? Analyze. (5 Marks)
(i) In olden times, the best way to present an idea was through symbolic personifications. This was the most common and appealing way to invite people’s attention.
(ii) From 1789, females appeared in paintings as a symbol of liberty and revolution.
(iii) During the French Revolution, many symbolic personifications of ‘Liberty’ and ‘Reason’ appeared. Marianne was the female figure invented by artists in the nineteenth century to represent the French nation. Her characteristics were drawn from those of Liberty and the Republic—the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade.
(iv) Statues of Marianne were erected in public places to remind the public of the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with it.
(v) Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.
(vi) Similarly, Germania became the symbol of the German nation. This work was done by the artist Philipp Veit. He depicted Germania as a female figure standing against a background where beams of sunlight shone through the tricolour fabric of the national flag. Germania was wearing a crown of oak leaves, as the German oak stood for heroism.
(vii) During the French Revolution, artists used the female allegory to portray ideas such as Liberty, Justice and the Republic. (Any five)
Q.8. Arrange the following in the correct sequence:
(i) Slav nationalism went there in the Habsburg and Ottoman Empires.
(ii) Unification of Germany.
(iii) Victor Emmanuel II was declared as the king of united Italy and Rome was declared the capital of Italy.
(iv) The Prussian King, William I was proclaimed the German Emperor.
(a) (iv) - (ii) - (iii) - (i)
(b) (iii) - (iv) - (ii) - (i)
(c) (iii) - (ii) - (iv) - (i)
(d) (i) - (ii) - (iii) - (iv)
Q.9. Answer in one word/one sentence:
Who was called as the architect of Germany's Unification?
Ans. Otto von Bismarck
Q.10. ______ means 'Rebirth'.
Q.11. The Civil Code of 1804 is also known as the ______.
Ans. Napoleonic Code
Q.12. Assertion and Reason Type Questions:
In the question given below, there are two statements. One is marked as Assertion (A) and the other as Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option.
Assertion: The French Revolution was an influential event that marked the age of revolutions in Europe.
Reason: The French Revolution transferred the sovereignty from the people to the monarch.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
Q.13. Otto von Bismarck was the architect of ‘German Unification’. Explain.
Examine the main features of the process of German unification under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck. (5 Marks)
Ans. Otto von Bismarck was the true architect of Germany who played an important role in the unification of the country. He is known for his policy of ‘Blood and Iron’.
(i) The middle-class Germans in 1848 tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state.
(ii) Prussian Chief Minister, Otto von Bismarck, with the help of the army and bureaucracy, carried out the task of unification.
(iii) Three wars over seven years with Austria, Denmark and France ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification.
(iv) On 18th January 1871, the Prussian King, Kaiser William I was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in the presence of important officials, army representatives and Otto von Bismarck.
Q.14. Briefly describe the process of German unification.
Briefly trace the process of German unification. [NCERT] (3 Marks)
Ans. (i) In the 1800s, nationalist feelings were strong in the hearts of middle-class Germans.
(ii) During the Vienna Congress in 1815, Germany was identified as a loose confederation of 39 states.
(iii) They united in 1848 to create a nation-state out of the numerous German states.
(iv) Prussia soon became the leader of the German unification movement.
(v) Chief Minister of Prussia Otto von Bismarck was the architect of the process with support from the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
(vi) The unification process was completed after Prussia won wars with Austria, Denmark, and France over a time period of seven years.
(vii) In January 1871, the Prussian King, William I, was proclaimed the German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles. (Any three)
Q.15. Read the extract and answer the questions that follow.
In the German regions a large number of political associations whose members were middle-class professionals, businessmen and prosperous artisans came together in the city of Frankfurt and decided to vote for an all-German National Assembly. On 18 May 1848, 831 elected representatives marched in a festive procession to take their places in the Frankfurt parliament convened in the Church of St Paul. They drafted a constitution for a German nation to be headed by a monarchy subject to a parliament. When the deputies offered the crown on these terms to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. While the opposition of the aristocracy and military became stronger, the social basis of parliament eroded. The parliament was dominated by the middle classes who resisted the demands of workers and artisans and consequently lost their support. In the end troops were called in and the assembly was forced to disband. The issue of extending political rights to women was a controversial one within the liberal movement, in which large numbers of women had participated actively over the years. Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations. Despite this they were denied suffrage rights during the election of the Assembly. When the Frankfurt parliament convened in the Church of St Paul, women were admitted only as observers to stand in the visitors’ gallery.
Questions: (i) People from which classes mainly constituted the members of many political associations in the German region?
(ii) What was Wilhelm IV's reaction when he was offered the crown on certain terms by the deputies?
(iii) In what ways were the women active in the political sphere? (3 Marks)
(i) Middle-class professionals, businessmen, and prosperous artisans were the classes that mainly constituted the members of many political associations in the German region.
(ii) When the deputies offered the crown on these terms to Friedrich Wilhelm IV, King of Prussia, he rejected it and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly.
(iii) Women actively participated in large numbers in the liberal movement over the years. Women had formed their own political associations, founded newspapers, and taken part in political meetings and demonstrations.
Q.16. Describe the great economic hardship that prevailed in Europe during the 1930s.
Describe any three economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s.
"The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship in Europe." Support the statement with arguments. (3 Marks)
Ans. Economic hardships:
(i) Increase in population all over Europe.
(ii) More job seekers than employment.
(iii) Rural population migrated to urban areas, overcrowded slums.
(iv) Any other relevant point to be described. (Any three)
NOTE: As the question is based on ‘hardship in Europe’, the students may be given marks on any of the aspects describing hardship of the 1830s or 1930s.
The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship or crisis in Europe due to the following reasons:
(i) There was an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
(ii) There were more job seekers than employment opportunities. The migration of rural people to the cities further made the situation worse.
(iii) Small scale producers in towns sometimes faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England.
(iv) In the regions of Europe where the aristocracy still enjoyed power, peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations.
(v) Due to the increased population, the demand for food increased. It led to the rise in food prices. This led to an increase in the prices and there was widespread pauperism in the entire country. (Any three points)
Q.17. Write a note on the Greek War of Independence. (3 Marks)
Q.18. “Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field, he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.” Analyse the statement with arguments. (5 Marks)
Q.19. Interpret the concept of ‘liberalisation’ in the field of economic sphere during the nineteenth century in Europe.
Ans. Concept of liberalization in the field of Economic Sphere:
In the economic sphere, liberalization stood for freedom of the market and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital. (CBSE Marking Scheme, 2019)
Q.20. Describe the role of Giuseppe Mazzini as an Italian revolutionary. (3 Marks)
Ans. The role of Giuseppe Mazzini as an Italian revolutionary:
|1. What is nationalism and how did it rise in Europe?|
|2. How did nationalism impact European society during the 19th century?|
|3. What were the key events in the rise of nationalism in Europe?|
|4. How did nationalism impact the formation of nation-states in Europe?|
|5. How did the rise of nationalism impact the balance of power in Europe?|