Q.1. Explain any three changes which Napoleon introduced to make the administrative system more efficient in Europe. Marks 3
What changes were brought due to Napoleon’s reforms and Code? What were the reactions to these changes?
What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
Ans. Napoleon introduced the following changes to make the administrative system more efficient in Europe:
(i) The Civil Code of 1804, known as Napoleonic Code, did away with all the privileges based on birth.
(ii) Administration became more efficient.
(iii) Secured the right to property.
(iv) Simplified administrative divisions.
(v) Abolished feudal system.
(vi) Freed peasants from serfdom and dues.
(vii) In the towns too, guild restrictions were removed.
(viii) Transport and communication improved.
Reactions to these changes: Peasants, artisans, workers and new businessmen enjoyed newfound freedom. Businessmen and small scale producers of goods in particular, began to realise uniform laws, standardized weights and measures would facilitate the movement of goods and capital from one region to another.
Q.2. How did a wave of economic nationalism strengthen the wider nationalist sentiment growing in Europe? Explain. Marks 3
Economic nationalism strengthened the wider nationalist sentiment. Economically, liberalism stood for:
(i) Freedom of markets.
(ii) End of state -imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital.
(iii) A customs union or zollverein was formed by Prussia in 1834, which was joined by many German states.
(iv) This union reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two and abolished tariff barriers.
(v) A network of railways led to great mobility and gave an impetus to national unity. (Any three)
Q.3. Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follows:
SOURCE A : Germany–Can the Army be the Architect of a Nation? [NCERT History Ch. 1 Page 19] after 184A8, nationalism in Europe moved away from its association with democracy and revolution. Nationalist sentiments were often mobilised by conservatives for promoting state power and achieving political domination over Europe. This can be observed in the process by which Germany and Italy came to be unified as nation-states. As you have seen, nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans, who in 1848 tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament. This liberal initiative to nation-building was, however, repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the large landowners (called Junkers) of Prussia. From then on, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification. Its chief minister, Otto von Bismarck, was the architect of this process carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy. Three wars over seven years – with Austria, Denmark and France – ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
SOURCE B : Italy Unified [NCERT History Ch. 1 Page 20] e GermLainky, Italy too had a long history of political fragmentation. Italians were scattered over several dynastic states as well as the multi-national Habsburg Empire. During the middle of the nineteenth century, Italy was divided into seven states, of which only one, Sardinia-Piedmont, was ruled by an Italian princely house. The north was under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the Pope and the southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon kings of Spain. Even the Italian language had not acquired one common form and still had many regional and local variations.
SOURCE C : The Strange Case of Britain [NCERT History Ch. 1 Page 21-22] The model of the nation or the nation-state, some scholars have argued, is Great Britain. In Britain the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. It was the result of a long-drawn-out process. There was no British nation prior to the eighteenth century. The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones – such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands. The English parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict, was the instrument through which a nation state, with England at its centre, came to be forged. Marks 3
Questions: SOURCE A – Germany – Can the Army be the Architect of a Nation?
(i) Who was the architect of the process of national unification?
SOURCE B : Italy Unified
(ii) In your opinion, what could be the reason behind that the Italian language had not acquired one common form and still had many regional and local variations?
SOURCE C : The Strange Case of Britain
(iii) What were the primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles? Mention one characteristic feature of these groups.
Ans. (i) Prussia’s chief minister, Otto von Bismarck, was the architect of the process of national unification.
(ii) In my opinion, one reason for this was that Italy had a long history of political fragmentation. Italians were scattered over several dynastic states and the Habsburg Empire.
(iii) The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones – such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. One characteristic feature of these ethnic groups was that they had their unique cultural and political traditions.
Q.4. Highlight the reasons for the growth of nationalist tensions in the Balkan region before the First World War. Marks 5
Briefly trace the geographical and ethnic variations of Balkan region. Why did this region become politically very explosive?
What is meant by the Balkans? Why did it turn into a perennial source of tension and proved the battlefield of the First World War?
How did the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire make Balkan region very explosive? Explain.
Why did the Balkan region of Eastern Europe present the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe? Explain any five reasons.
Ans. Reasons for the growth of nationalist tension in Balkan region:
(i) The Balkan was a region of geographical and ethnic variations comprising modern day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro. The inhabitants were called Slavs.
(ii) The spread of romantic nationalism leads to its disintegration.
(iii) Different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity.
(iv) Balkan region became a region of intense conflict over expansion of territory.
(v) At the same time, the great European Powers – Russia, Germany, England and Austria-Hungary were keen on taking control of the Balkan region, since it was important from a trade point of view.
(vi) This led to the series of wars in the region and finally became the cause of the First World War. [Any five points]
Q.5. Describe the explosive conditions that prevailed in the Balkans after 1871 in Europe. Marks 5
Ans. Explosive condition of Balkans in 1871: The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern days Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece and Macedonia whose inhabitants were broadly known as Slavs. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The spread of ideas of Romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region explosive. All throughout the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire had sought to strengthen itself. The Balkan people based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality and used history for their claim. The Balkans also became the scene of rivalry among big powers.
Q.6. “The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789.” Explain the meaning of nationalism and throw light on the statement. Marks 5
Ans. Nationalism is a feeling of people within a state territory, which makes them develop a sense of collective identity and share history or descent. This feeling works as a binding force among people. Before 1789, France was under absolute monarchy. With French Revolution, Monarchy was thrown out and a sovereign body of French citizens was established. This revolution made France the nation-state and made many political and constitutional changes like:
(i) A new French flag was adopted to replace the former royal standard
(ii) The Estates General renamed as General Assembly, became an elected body.
(iii) Centralised administration and uniform civil laws were made for citizens.
(iv) Uniform weighing and measurement system was adopted.
(v) French became the national language of France.
All these changes gave a clear expression of collectivism and gave people true power to shape the destiny of France. Thus, France became a nation-state and the world got a clear expression of nationalism through the French Revolution.
Q.7. Read the extract and answer the questions that follows:
Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism. The term ‘liberalism’ derives from the Latin root liber, meaning free. For the new middle classes liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent. Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament. Nineteenth-century liberals also stressed the inviolability of private property.
Yet, equality before the law did not necessarily stand for universal suffrage. You will recall that in revolutionary France, which marked the first political experiment in liberal democracy, the right to vote and to get elected was granted exclusively to property-owning men. Men without property and all women were excluded from political rights. Only for a brief period under the Jacobins did all adult males enjoy suffrage. However, the Napoleonic Code went back to limited suffrage and reduced women to the status of a minor, subject to the authority of fathers and husbands. Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries women and non-propertied men organised opposition movements demanding equal political rights.
In the economic sphere, liberalism stood for the freedom of markets and the abolition of state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital. During the nineteenth century this was a strong demand of the emerging middle classes. Let us take the example of the German-speaking regions in the first half of the nineteenth century. Napoleon’s administrative measures had created out of countless small principalities a confederation of 39 states. Each of these possessed its own currency, and weights and measures. A merchant travelling in 1833 from Hamburg to Nuremberg to sell his goods would have had to pass through 11 customs barriers and pay a customs duty of about 5 per cent at each one of them. Duties were often levied according to the weight or measurement of the goods. As each region had its own system of weights and measures, this involved time-consuming calculation. The measure of cloth, for example, was the elle which in each region stood for a different length. An elle of textile material bought in Frankfurt would get you 54.7 cm of cloth, in Mainz 55.1 cm, in Nuremberg 65.6 cm, in Freiburg 53.5 cm. Marks 5
Questions: (i) Give the origin and meaning of the term 'liberalism'.
(ii) What changes did the Napoleonic Code make in the political rights of people?
(iii) Write any two features of the administrative reforms introduced by Napoleon.
(i) The term ‘liberalism’ originates from the Latin term ‘liber’, which means ‘free’.
(ii) The Napoleonic Code reinstalled limited suffrage and reduced women to the status of a minor, subject to the authority of fathers and husbands.
(iii) Two features of the administrative reforms introduced by Napoleon:
(a) A confederation of 39 states was created out of countless small principalities.
(b) Duties were usually levied on the basis of weight or measurement of goods.
Q.8. How did the local people in the areas conquered by Napoleon react to French rule? Explain. Marks 3
Ans. In the areas conquered by Napoleon, the reactions of the local populations to French rule were mixed. In many places such as Holland and Switzerland, as well as in certain cities like Brussels, Mainz, Milan and Warsaw, the French armies had been welcomed as champions of liberty. But this enthusiasm turned into hostility, when it became clear that the new administrative arrangements conflicted with political freedom. The new regulations led to increased taxes, censorship of the press, forced conscription into the French armies to conquer the rest of Europe, etc. These harsh laws were unpopular.
Q.9. Match the following:
Ans. (i)-(c), (ii)-(d), (iii)-(b), (iv)-(a)
Fill in the blanks:
Q.10. The concept of nationalism emerged in Europe during the ______ century.
Q.11. Ottoman Empire was ruled by the ______.
Q.12. Which of the following options best signifies this caricature?
(a) Otto von Bismarck in the German reichstag (Parliament)
(b) Victor Emmanuel II in the Italian Parliament
(c) Kaiser William II in the Prussian Parliament
(d) Napoleon Bonaparte in the French Parliament
Fill in the blanks:
Q.13. The feelings of nationalism were illustrated by a French artist named ______.
Ans. Frederic Sorrieu
Correct the following statement and rewrite:
Q.14. The Prussian king William I was proclaimed the German Emperor in 1870.
Ans. The Prussian king William I was proclaimed the German Emperor in 1871.
Q.15. In France, the idea of a people's nation was christened Germania. She was characterized by the ideas of Liberty and Republic.
Ans. In France, the idea of a peoples’ nation was christened Marianne. She was characterized by the ideas of Liberty and Republic.
Q.16. How did nationalism and the idea of nation-state emerge? Describe. Marks 5
Ans. (i) Nationalism and the idea of the nation-state emerged within the culturally and regionally diverse groups of Europe.
(ii) Due to industrialisation and transformation of society, there emerged a middle-class consisting of businessmen, working professionals, industrialists, labourers and working-class people.
(iii) Industrialisation began in England in the second half of the 18th century but in France and German states, it occurred only during the 19th century. In its wake, new social groups came into being.
(iv) Out of these, the educated middle-class people thought of uniting the culturally compatible sections of people in Europe by abolishing the privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy.
(v) It was among the educated liberal middle-class that the ideas of national unity and abolition of aristocratic privileges gained popularity.
(vi) This led to nationalism and the emergence of the idea of the nation-state.
Q.17. Describe the process of unification of Britain. Marks 5
How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe
Ans. Unification of Britain:
(i) Britain was not a nation state prior to the 18th century. The primary identities were based on ethnicities such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish.
(ii) The steady growth of power made the English nation extend its influence over the other nations and islands.
(iii) In 1688, England was established as a nation state. English parliament seized power from the monarchy.
(iv) In 1707, the United Kingdom of Great Britain formed with the Act of the Union between England and Scotland.
(v) England dominated Scotland and Ireland in all spheres. British parliament was dominated by English members.
(vi) Ireland was forcibly taken by the British after the failed revolution led by Wolfe and his United Irishmen (1798). A new “British nation” was formed. (Any five)
Q.18. Read the extract and answer the questions that follow.
During the 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic. He had also formed a secret society called Young Italy for the dissemination of his goals. The failure of revolutionary uprisings both in 1831 and 1848 meant that the mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under its ruler King Victor Emmanuel II to unify the Italian states through war. In the eyes of the ruling elites of this region, a unified Italy offered them the possibility of economic development and political dominance.
Chief Minister Cavour who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. Like many other wealthy and educated members of the Italian elite, he spoke French much better than he did Italian. Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France engineered by Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. Apart from regular troops, a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the fray. In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and succeeded in winning the support of the local peasants in order to drive out the Spanish rulers. In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy. However, much of the Italian population, among whom rates of illiteracy were very high, remained blissfully unaware of liberal-nationalist ideology. The peasant masses who had supported Garibaldi in southern Italy had never heard of Italia, and believed that ‘La Talia’ was Victor Emmanuel’s wife! Marks 5
Questions: (i) Who formed a secret society called 'Young Italy'?
(ii) Who led the movement to unify the regions of Italy? State any one quality of his character.
(iii) According to the extract, what was the reason for a large part of Italian population remaining unaware of the liberal ideology?
Ans. (i) Giuseppe Mazzini formed a secret society called ‘Young Italy’.
(ii) Chief Minister Cavour led the movement to unify the regions of Italy. One quality of his character was that he was an extremely tactful diplomat.
(iii) A large part of Italian population was illiterate, so it remained unaware of the liberal ideology.
Q.19. Who was Cavour? Explain his contributions to the unification of Italy. Marks 3
Write a note on Count Camillo de Cavour. [NCERT]
Ans. Cavour was the Chief Minister of SardiniaPiedmont.His contribution to the unification of Italy was:
(i) He was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat. He was a good administrator.
(ii) He worked for the unification of Italy. Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France.
(iii) He led the movement to unify the regions of Italy.
(iv) He was a tactful diplomat. He succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. (Any two)
Q.20. With reference to Scotland and Ireland, explain how British nationalism grew at the cost of other cultures.
Ans. (i) Through the Act of Union (1707), England was able to impose its influence on Scotland.
(ii) The growth of British identity in parliament suppressed the distinctive culture of Scotland.
(iii) The Catholic clans that inhibited the Scottish Highland suffered repression.
(iv) They were forcibly driven out of their homeland.
(v) Ireland was also divided between Catholics and Protestants.
(vi) Ireland was forcibly incorporated in the UK. (Any five)