Q.1. Why universal adult franchise is important in a democracy?
The universal adult franchise is a very important aspect of democratic societies because it gives all adult (those who are 18 and above) citizens the right to vote irrespective of their social or economic backgrounds.
Q.2. Why people do not consider Dalits as equal, even though the law says it?
This is because attitudes change very slowly. It is only when people begin to believe that no one is inferior and that every person deserves to be treated with dignity, that present attitudes can change.
Q.3. Why do you think Omprakash Valmiki was being treated unequally by his teacher and his classmates?
Omprakash Valmiki is being treated unequally on the basis of differences in caste.
Q.4. What is the midday meal programme?
This refers to the programme introduced in all government elementary schools to provide children with cooked lunch.
Q.5. What do you understand by ‘dignity’?
This refers to thinking of oneself and other persons as worthy of respect.
Q.6. What is Joothan?
Joothan is autobiography of a famous Dalit writer Omprakash Valmiki.
Q.7. What does the civil rights act of 1964 state?
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, religion, or national origin. It also stated that all schools would be open to African–American children and that they would no longer have to attend separate schools specially set up for them.
Q.8. How African–Americans were treated prior to the movement in the late 1950s to push for equal rights for African– Americans?
Prior to the movement, African–Americans were treated extremely unequally in the United States and denied equality through the law. For example, when traveling by bus, they either had to sit at the back of the bus or get up from their seat whenever a white person wished to sit.
Q.9. What was Civil Rights Movement?
Rosa Parks was an African–American woman. Tired from a long day at work she refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man on 1 December 1955. Her refusal that day started a huge agitation against the unequal ways in which African–Americans were treated and which came to be known as the Civil Rights Movement.
Q.10. What is a disability act passed in 1995?
The Government of India passed the Disabilities Act in 1995. This law states that persons with disabilities have equal rights and that the government should make possible their full participation in society. The government has to provide free education and integrate children with disabilities into mainstream schools. This law also states that all public places including buildings, schools, etc., should be accessible and provided with ramps.
Q.11. Establishing equality in a democratic society is a continuous struggle. Comment
One of the main reasons for this is that attitudes change very slowly. Even though people are aware that discrimination is against the law they continue to treat people unequally on the basis of their caste, religion, disability, economic status, and because they are women. It is only when people begin to believe that no one is inferior and that every person deserves to be treated with dignity, that present attitudes can change. Change in attitude is a slow process and hence establishing equality in a democratic society is a continuous struggle.
Q.12. What do you understand by the term “all persons are equal before the law”? Why do you think it is important in a democracy?
All persons are equal before the law means:
(i) Every person, from the President of the country to Kanta, a domestic worker, has to obey the same laws.
(ii) No person can be discriminated against on the basis of their religion, race, caste, place of birth, or whether they are female or male.
(iii) Every person has access to all public places including playgrounds, hotels, shops, and markets. All persons can use publicly available wells, roads and bathing ghats.
(iv) Untouchability has been abolished.
Democracy is a system of government in which people choose their representatives by voting for them in the elections. Therefore, a true democracy should provide equality of opportunity so that everyone has an equal chance. If inequality on the basis of religion, race, caste, and place of birth continues to exist, democracy would never flourish.
Q.13. In a democracy why is a universal adult franchise important?
The universal adult franchise is an essential aspect of all democracies. The idea of a universal adult franchise is based on the idea of equality because it states that every adult in a country, irrespective of their wealth and the communities she/he belongs to, has one vote.
Q.14. Which was the first state in India to introduce a midday meal scheme?
Tamil Nadu was the first state in India to introduce this scheme.
Q.15. What property dealer suggested to Mr. Ansari?
The property dealer suggested them to change their names and call themselves Mr and Mrs Kumar.
|1. What is the meaning of equality?|
|2. Why is equality important in society?|
|3. How can we promote equality in our daily lives?|
|4. What are the consequences of inequality in society?|
|5. What are some examples of inequality in our society?|