Q.1. Why was Ramabai given the title ‘Pandita’?
She was given the title ‘Pandita’ because she could read and write Sanskrit, a remarkable achievement as women then were not allowed such knowledge.
Q.2. “When we think of a farmer we only think of a man.” Explain why?
When we think of a farmer we only think of a man because major portion of agricultural work is done by man such as ploughing, running machinery, etc.
Q.3. Why it is believed that women make better nurses?
People believe that women make better nurses because they are more patient and gentle. This is linked to women’s roles within the family.
Q.4. Who is Laxmi Lakra?
Laxmi Lakra is a young tribal woman from Jharkhand who has become the first woman train driver with Northern Railway.
Q.5. Which is the first known autobiography written by an Indian woman?
Amar Jiban is the first known autobiography written by an Indian woman.
Q.6. When is International Women's Day celebrated?
On 8 March, International Women’s Day is celebrated.
Q.7. Who set up a mission in Khedgaon near Pune in 1898? What was the mission about? How did the mission help the women?
Ramabai set up a Mission in Khedgaon near Pune in 1898, where widows and poor women were encouraged not only to become literate but to be independent. They were taught a variety of skills from carpentry to running a printing press, skills that are not usually taught to girls even today. Ramabai’s Mission is still active today.
Q.8. What do you understand Women’s Movement?
Women and girls now have the right to study and go to school. There are other spheres – like legal reform, violence, and health – where the situation of women and girls has improved. These changes have not happened automatically. Women individually and collectively have struggled to bring about these changes. This struggle is known as the Women’s Movement.
Q.9. What is Sultana’s Dream about?
This story imagined a woman called Sultana who reaches a place called Ladyland. Ladyland is a place where women had the freedom to study, work, and create inventions like controlling rain from the clouds and flying air cars. In this Ladyland, the men had been sent into seclusion – their aggressive guns and other weapons of war defeated by the brain-power of women.
Q.10. Who was Rashsundari Devi? What did she write in her autobiography?
Rashsundari Devi was a housewife from a rich landlord’s family. At the age of 60, she wrote her autobiography in Bangla. Her book titled Amar Jiban is the first known autobiography written by an Indian woman. She wrote about her everyday life experiences in detail in her autobiography.
Q.11. Why women were not seen as potters?
In the pottery trade, women collected the mud and prepared the earth for the pots. But since they did not operate the wheel, they were not seen as potters.
Q.12. Though literacy rates have increased since independence then what is the major concern?
According to the 1961 census, about 40 percent of all boys and men were literate compared to just 15 percent of all girls and women. In the most recent census of 2001, these figures have grown to 76 percent for boys and men, and 54 percent for girls and women. This means that the proportion of both men and women who are now able to read and have at least some amount of schooling has increased. But, the concern is that the percentage of the male group is still higher than the female group. The gap has not gone away.
Q.13. Why was Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain stopped from learning Bangla and English? How did she learn these languages?
She was stopped from learning Bangla and English. In those days, English was seen as a language that would expose girls to new ideas, which people thought were not correct for them. Therefore, it was mostly boys who were taught English. Rokeya learned to read and write Bangla and English with the support of her elder brother and an elder sister.
Q.14. Mention the changes that occurred with the emergence of new ideas about education and learning in the 19th century?
In the nineteenth century, many new ideas about education and learning emerged. Schools became more common and communities that had never learned reading and writing started sending their children to school. But there was a lot of opposition to educating girls even then. Yet many women and men made efforts to open schools for girls. Women struggled to learn to read and write.
Q.15. “Poor girls drop out of school because they are not interested in getting an education.” Re-read the last paragraph on page 62 and explain why this statement is not true.
Poor girls do not drop out of school because they are not interested in getting an education. They leave the school because of the following reasons:
(i) In many parts of the country, especially in rural and poor areas, there may not even be proper schools or teachers who teach on a regular basis.
(ii) If a school is not close to people’s homes, and there is no transport like buses or vans, parents may not be willing to send their girls to school.
(iii) Many families are too poor and unable to bear the cost of educating all their children. Boys may get preference in this situation.
(iv) Many children also leave school because they are discriminated against by their teacher and classmates.