Q.1. “The multinational companies (MNCs) choose China as an alternative location for investment?” Explain the statement. Marks 3
Ans. (i) Since the revolution in 1949, China gradually came into the field of world economy. It attracted the foreign MNCs because of its lowest economic structure.
(ii) Wages were relatively low.
(iii) China had the largest population besides labour. They also formed a large consumer base.
Q.2. Explain the following: (i) G-77 (ii) Great Depression of 1929. Marks 3
Ans. (i) G-77 Organisation was formed by the former colonies to demand a New International Economic Order.
(ii) It was a period of serious decline in production, employment, income and trade.
G-77 Headquarters Q.3. Explain the role of the New International Economic Order (NIEO). Marks 3
Ans. The Group of 77 or G-77 demanded a New International Economic Order (NIEO). By the NIEO they meant a system that would give them:
(i) Actual control over their natural resources.
(ii) More development assistance.
(iii) Fairer prices for their raw materials.
(iv) Better access for their manufactured goods in developed countries’ markets. (Any three)
Q.4. When was the Bretton Woods conference convened? State the main aim of the conference. Marks 3
Describe the Bretton Woods Agreement.
Ans. (i) The Bretton Woods Conference was convened in July, 1944 at Bretton Woods in New Hampshire, USA
(ii) Its main aim was to preserve economic stability and full employment in the Industrial world.
(iii) The Conference established the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank).
Q.5. Describe the role of 'technology' in transformation of the world in the nineteenth century. Marks 5
Ans. Role of technology:
(i) The railways, steamships, and the telegraph for example were important inventions without which we cannot imagine the transformed nineteenth century world.
(ii) Technology advances were often the result of larger social, political and economic factors.
(iii) Colonization stimulated new investments.
(iv) Improvement in transport.
(v) Larger ships helped to move food more cheaply.
(vi) Any other relevant point to be described.
Role of Technology in transformation of the world in the nineteenth century:
(i) Transformation of the world economy: Railways, steam ships and telegraph – were important inventions which transformed the nineteenth-century world. Colonisation stimulated new investments and improvements in transport; faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped to move food more cheaply and quickly from faraway farms to final markets.
(ii) Impact on meat trade: Till the 1870s, meat from America was shipped to Europe in the form of live animals which were then slaughtered in Europe. But live animals took up a lot of ship space, and many of them also died in voyage, fell ill, lost weight, or became unfit to eat. A new technology, namely, refrigerated ships enabled the transport of perishable foods over long distances. Now animals were slaughtered at the starting point and then transported to Europe as frozen meat. This reduced the shipping costs and lowered meat prices in Europe. The poor in Europe could now consume a more varied diet. Better living conditions promoted social pace within the country and support for imperialism abroad.
Q.6. “Food offers many examples of long distance cultural exchange.” Justify this statement. Marks 3
In what ways did food items offer scope for long distance cultural exchange? Explain.
Ans. (i) Traders and travellers introduced new crops to the lands they travelled.
(ii) It is believed that noodles travelled west from China to become spaghetti.
(iii) Arabs traders took pasta to Sicily, an island now in Italy in the 5th century.
(iv) Many of our common foods such as potatoes, soya, groundnut, maize, tomatoes, chillies, sweet potatoes and so on were not known to our ancestors. (Any three)
Q.7. Read the extract and answer the questions that follows: Marks 5
Population growth from the late eighteenth century had increased the demand for food grains in Britain. As urban centres expanded and industry grew, the demand for agricultural products went up, pushing up food grain prices. Under pressure from landed groups, the government also restricted the import of corn. The laws allowing the government to do this were commonly known as the ‘Corn Laws’. Unhappy with high food prices, industrialists and urban dwellers forced the abolition of the Corn Laws. After the Corn Laws were scrapped, food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country. British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated, and thousands of men and women were thrown out of work. They flocked to the cities or migrated overseas.
As food prices fell, consumption in Britain rose. From the mid-nineteenth century, faster industrial growth in Britain also led to higher incomes, and therefore more food imports. Around the world –in Eastern Europe, Russia, America and Australia – lands were cleared and food production expanded to meet the British demand.
Questions: (i) What were the Corn Laws?
(ii) What were the consequences of the abolition of Corn Laws?
(iii) What led to an increase in food imports in Britain in the mid-nineteenth century ?
(i) The Corn Laws were those which allowed the government to impose restrictions on the import of corn.
(ii) After the Corn Laws were scrapped, food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country. British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated, and thousands of men and women were thrown out of work. They flocked to the cities or migrated overseas.
(iii) From the mid nineteenth century, faster industrial growth in Britain also led to higher incomes, and therefore more food imports.
Q.8. What was Rinderpest? How did it adversely affect the lives and fortunes of the Africans? Marks 5
What was Rinderpest? How did Rinderpest change the economy of the African Society?
Describe briefly the effects of Rinderpest in Africa in the 1890s.
Ans. Rinderpest was the fast spreading disease of cattle plague that arrived in Africa in the late 1880s. It was carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed the Italian soldiers Invading Eritrea in East Africa. Within two years, it spread throughout the whole continent. It affected the Africans in the following ways:
(i) Rinderpest moved like forest fire in Africa.
(ii) 90% of cattle were killed.
(iii) The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods. Earlier people rarely worked for a wage. They possessed land and livestock. Due to Rinderpest, they were forced to work for wages and so it affected the economy.
(iv) Colonial government forced the Africans into the labour market.
Q.9. Describe the impact of the Great Depression on Indian economy. Marks 5
Explain the effects of the Great Depression of 1929 on the Indian economy.
How did the Great Depression of 1929 affect the farmers and the middle classes in India in different ways?
Ans. The impact of the Great Depression on Indian economy:
(i) India’s exports and imports nearly halved between 1928 and 1934.
(ii) As agricultural prices fell sharply internationally as a result of this prices plunged in India.
(iii) Despite this, the colonial government refused to reduce revenue demands.
(iv) Peasants’ indebtedness increased. They used up their savings, mortgaged lands and sold their jewellery and precious metals.
(v) India became an exporter of metal.
(vi) Town dwellers found themselves better off.
Q.10. Explain any five characteristics of the Silk Routes. Marks 5
Enumerate the importance of Silk Routes.
Ans. (i) The silk routes are a good example of vibrant premodern trade and cultural links between distant parts of the world.
(ii) They were spread over land and sea knitting together vast regions of Asia and linking with Europe and Africa.
(iii) They existed since before the Christian Era and thrived almost till the 15th century.
(iv) Chinese pottery, textiles and spices from India travelled to Europe.
(v) In return, precious metals, gold and silver flowed from Europe to Asia.
(vi) Buddhism, Christian missionaries, Muslim preachers also travelled through this route to Asia. (Any five)
Q.11. Write any three factors responsible for indentured labour migration from India. Marks 3
Ans. Factors responsible for indentured labour migration from India:
(i) In the mid-19th century, cottage industries declined, land rents rose, lands were cleared for mines and plantations.
This affected poor people because they were highly indebted and forced to migrate for work.
(ii) Temptation: As the agents provided false information about final destinations, nature of work, living and working conditions, many poor people were tempted to go and work.
(iii) In order to escape poverty or oppression at home and in villages many migrants agreed to work.
Q.12. What attracted the Europeans to Africa? Give any three reasons. Marks 3
Why were Europeans attracted to Africa in the late 19th century? Mention any three reasons.
Ans. (i) Europeans were attracted due to the resources of land and minerals of Africa.
(ii) They came to Africa to establish plantations and exploit mines.
(iii) African countries were militarily weak and backward. So, it was easy to conquer them.
Q.13. Why have the historians described the 19th century indenture as new system of slavery? Explain five reasons. Marks 5
Ans. Indentured labour was described as a new system of slavery because:
(i) Agents tempted the poor people by giving false information about the nature of work, living and working conditions, final destination modes of travel, etc.
(ii) Less willing workers were at time forcibly abducted by the agents.
(iii) On the plantation, the working conditions were harsh and they had a few legal rights.
(iv) They were beaten or imprisoned for not being able to meet tasks that used to be very heavy or for running away from the job.
(v) Normal medical attention was given to them and wages were deducted in case of absence at work or failure to fulfil the task.
Correct the following statement and rewrite:
Q.14. The IMF and the World Bank were designed to meet the cultural needs of the member countries.
Ans. The IMF and the World Bank were designed to meet the financial needs of the member countries.
Find the incorrect option:
Q.15. (a) The Great Depression began around 1929 and bloated till the mid-1930s.
(b) During this period most parts of the world experienced catastrophic declines in production, employment, incomes and trade.
(c) The exact timing and impact of the depression varied across countries.
(d) But in general, agricultural regions and communities were the best affected.
Ans. The Incorrect option is (d): But in general, agricultural regions and communities were the best affected.
Correct answer is: But in general, agricultural regions and communities were the worst affected.
Q.16. Explain the three types of movement or flows within international economic exchange. Mention any one example of any one type of flow from India and one from England. Marks 5
Explain the three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange.
Ans. (i) The first movement is the flow of trade of goods.
(ii) The second movement is the flow of people migrating in search of employment.
(iii) The third movement is the flow of capital in terms of short-term and long-term investments done overseas.
(iv) Flow of goods and capital was smoother than the flow of people. All three were benefited by the exchange of ideas.
India: Migration of indentured labourers; trade of cotton textile.
Europe: Selling of Manchester goods in India.
Q.17. Mention any three effects of the British Government’s decision for the abolition of the Corn Laws. Marks 3
Write a note to explain the effects of the British Government’s decision to abolish the Corn Laws.
Ans. (i) Food could be imported into Britain at a much cheaper rate than it would be produced within the country.
(ii) British agriculture was unable to compete with imports. Vast areas of land were left uncultivated and people started migrating to cities or other countries.
(iii) As food prices fell, consumption in Britain rose. Faster industrial growth in Britain also led to higher incomes and therefore more food imports.
(iv) Around the world—in Eastern Europe, Russia, America and Australia—lands were cleared and food production expanded to meet the British demand. (Any three)
Q.18. “Trade and cultural exchange always went hand in hand”. Explain the statement in the light of silk route. Marks 5
Ans. (i) The silk routes are a good example of vibrant pre-modern trade and cultural links between distant parts of the world.
(ii) The name ‘silk routes’ points to the importance of west-bound Chinese silk cargoes along this route.
(iii) Precious metals—gold and silver, etc., flowed from Europe to Asia. Chinese pottery, textiles from China and spices from India were traded.
(iv) Various food items offer very good examples of long distance cultural exchanges.
(v) Christian missionaries, Muslim preachers and Buddhist monks travelled through this route.
Q.19. Why did the industrialists and people living in cities of Britain forced the government to abolish Corn Laws in the 18th Century? Give two reasons. Marks 3
Ans. (i) Population growth from the late 18th century had increased the demand for food grains in Britain pushing up the prices. Under pressure from farmers, the government restricted the import of corn. These laws were commonly known as the ‘Corn Laws’.
(ii) On the other hand, the industrialists and people living in cities forced the government to abolish the Corn Laws.
Q.20. “19th century indenture had been described as a new system of slavery.” Explain the statement briefly. Marks 3
Ans. New system of slavery:
(i) Agents tempted the poor people by giving false information about the nature of work, final destinations, living and working conditions, modes of travel, etc.
(ii) Less willing workers were at time forcibly abducted by the agents.
(iii) On arrival at the plantations, when labourers found conditions to be different, many of them escaped into the wilds while others developed new forms of individual and collective self expression.