Q.1. Describe the ideology of liberalism during the early 19th century. Marks 3
Ans. (i) Liberalism in the early 19th century stood for freedom for the individual and equality to all before law for the new middle classes.
(ii) Politically, it emphasised the concept of government by consent.
(iii) It stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges.
Liberalism: Derived from the Latin word ‘liber’ means ‘free’. It meant differently to different people.
Middle class: For the new middle classes, liberalism stood for freedom of individual and equality of all before the law.
Politically: It emphasised the concept of government by consent. The right to vote was meant to be only for property-owning men. The lower classes were, therefore, not included. In general, it stood for the inviolability of private property and freedom of the markets from state imposed restrictions on the movement of goods.
Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitutional and representative government through parliament.
Q.2. What was the status of France as a state before 1789? Which two political and constitutional changes came in the wake of the French Revolution? Marks 3
Ans. France was a full-fledged territorial state before 1789 under the rule of an absolute monarch.
(i) The French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens.
(ii) The revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny. So, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
Q.3. What happened during the year following 1815 when the fear of repression drove many liberalnationalists underground? Explain. R [Board Term-II, 2016] Marks 5
Ans. (i) Secret societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas.
(ii) To be revolutionary at this time meant a commitment to oppose monarchical forms that had been established after the Vienna Congress, and to fight for liberty and freedom.
(iii) Most of these revolutionaries also saw the creation of nation-states as a necessary part of this struggle for freedom. One such individual was the Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini.
(iv) He subsequently founded two more underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles, and then, Young Europe in Berne, whose members were like minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.
(v) Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So, Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms. It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations.
(vi) This unification alone could be the basis of Italian liberty. Following his model, secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland.
(vii) Mazzini‘s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives. Metternich described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.
Q.4. How did culture play an important role in Europe in creating the idea of the nation? Marks 5
Ans. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of a nation because of the following reasons:
(i) Art, poetry, stories and music helped in shaping nationalist feelings in Europe.
(ii) Romanticism was a cultural movement which played a role in this context. Romantic poets and artists were critical of reason and science.
(iii) A sense of shared collective heritage was developed.
(iv) Folk dance, folk poetry and songs were considered the true expression of the spirit of the nation.
(v) Speaking in the vernacular language was another expression of nationalism.
Q.5. How did nationalism develop through culture in Europe? Explain. Marks 3
Ans. Nationalism developed through culture in Europe in the following ways:
(i) Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation. Art, poetry, stories and music helped to express and shape nationalist feelings.
(ii) Romanticism, a cultural movement, sought to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets generally criticized the glorification of reason and science and focused on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings.
(iii) German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people- das volk. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of a nation was popularized.
(iv) The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore was used to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterates. (Any three)
Q.6. Read the extract and answer the questions that follow.
By the last quarter of the nineteenth century nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment of the first half of the century, but became a narrow creed with limited ends. During this period nationalist groups became increasingly intolerant of each other and ever ready to go to war. The major European powers, in turn, manipulated the nationalist aspirations of the subject peoples in Europe to further their own imperialist aims. The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called the Balkans. The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive. All through the nineteenth century the Ottoman Empire had sought to strengthen itself through modernisation and internal reforms but with very little success. One by one, its European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence. The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers. Hence the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their long-lost independence. As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict. The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of the others. Matters were further complicated because the Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry. During this period, there was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might. These rivalries were very evident in the way the Balkan problem unfolded. Each power – Russia, Germany, England, Austro-Hungary – was keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans, and extending its own control over the area. This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War. [NCERT History Ch. 1 Page 26] Marks 5
Questions: (i) Why did the major European powers manipulate the nationalist aspirations of the subject peoples in Europe by the last quarter of the nineteenth century?
(ii) What was the basis of the Balkan people regarding their claim for independence?
(iii) State any two reasons which led to a series of wars in the Balkan region and finally the First World War.
Ans. (i) The major European powers manipulated the nationalist aspirations of the subject people in Europe by the last quarter of the nineteenth century in order to fulfill their own imperialistic aims.
(ii) The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence or political right on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers. Hence the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles to win back their long-lost independence.
(iii) Two major reasons which led to a series of wars in the Balkan region and finally the
First World War: (a) The Balkan area had become an area of intense conflict. The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of the others. Matters were further complicated because the Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry.
(b) During this period, there was intense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might. These rivalries were very evident in the way the Balkan problem unfolded. Each power was keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans, and extending its own control over the area.
Q.7. Complete the following table with the happening of two events and the respective years in which they took place.
Ans. (A) - 1871 (B) - Beginning of the First World War
Multiple Choice Questions
Q.8. Which of the following countries is considered as the 'Cradle of civilisation'?
Q.9. Who said "When France sneezes the rest of Europe catches cold"?
Q.10. Assertion and Reason Type Questions: the question given below, there are two statements. One is marked as Assertion (A) and other as Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the correct option:
Assertion: A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire.
Reason: The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is correct but (R) is wrong.
(d) (A) is wrong but (R) is correct.
Correct the following statement and rewrite:
Q.11. Conservatism was a political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, established institutions and customs, and preferred immediate development to quick change.
Ans. Conservatism was a political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, established institutions and customs, and preferred gradual development to quick change.
Find the incorrect option:
Q.12. (a) The first upheaval took place in France in July 1930.
(b) The Bourbon kings who had been restored to power during the conservative reaction after 1815, were now overthrown by liberal revolutionaries who installed a constitutional monarchy with Louis Philippe at its head.
(c) 'When America Sneezes' Metternich once remarked, 'the rest of Europe catches cold.'
(d) The July Revolution sparked an uprising in Brussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Solution: ‘When America Sneezes’, Metternich once remarked, ‘the rest of Europe catches cold’.
Correct answer is: ‘When France Sneezes’, Metternich once remarked, ‘the rest of Europe catches cold’.
Q.13. How did the Treaty of Vienna change the map of Europe? Marks 3
How did conservatives establish their power after 1815?
Ans. Representatives of Austria, Britain, Prussia and Russia after defeating Napoleon drew the Treaty of Vienna of 1815 to undo the changes initiated by Napoleon. The aim was to restore the overthrown monarchies and create a new conservative order. The Congress of Vienna convened to re-map post-Napoleonic Europe and prevent the rebuilding of a strong France.Europe after Treaty of Vienna(i) The conservatives believed in a modern army, efficient bureaucracy and a dynamic economy.
(ii) In 1815, the European powers-Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria defeated Napoleon at Vienna to draw up settlement of Europe.
(iii) The conference was hosted by Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich.
(iv) The Treaty of Vienna of 1815 was signed to undo most of the changes that had come during the Napoleonic wars.
(v) The deposed Bourbon dynasty was restored to power.
(vi) France lost its territories, annexed under Napoleon.
(vii) To prevent further expansion of French territories, a series of states were set up on boundaries.
(viii) Kingdom of Netherlands including Belgium was set up in the north.
(ix) Genoa was added to Piedmont in the south.
(x) Prussia was given new territories in western frontiers.
(xi) Austria was given the control of northern Italy.
(xii) Eastern Russia was given a part of Saxony.
(xiii) 39 states of German confederation were left untouched. (Any six)
Q.14. Define the term 'Romanticism'. How did it facilitate the promotion of nationalist sentiment?
Romanticism was a movement in the arts and literature, which originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity and the primacy of the individual.
(i) Critical approach towards reason and science: Romantic artists criticised the glorification of reason and science and focused on emotions, intuitions and mystical feelings.
(ii) Folk culture as the spirit of the nation: Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances, the true spirit of the nation could be popularized.(iii) Emphasis on vernacular language: They gave emphasis on vernacular language to recover not only the ancient national spirit but also to carry the modern nationalist message to a large audience who were mostly illiterate.
Q.15. Describe any three conditions that led to the formation of the British nation state. Marks 3
Ans. Three conditions that led to the emergence of the British nation state are:
(i) The emergence of the new middle classes.
(ii) The ideology of liberalism.
(iii) The ideas of conservatism and the Treaty of Vienna.
Q.16. What changes came in nationalism in Europe after 1848 ? Who was the architect of this process? How was it practised? Marks 3
Ans. (i) Europe moved away from its association with democracy and revolution and related more to monarchy and conservatism.
(ii) The conservatives mobilised the sentiments of the people in order to achieve political domination.
(iii) Otto von Bismarck was the architect of this process.
(iv) It was backed by the army and bureaucracy. (Any three)
Q.17. Explain the aim to form 'Zollverein' a customs Union in 1834 in Germany.
Ans. (i) To abolish tariff barriers
(ii) To reduce the number of currencies from 30 to 2. (Any One)
Q.18. Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follows:
SOURCE A : The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation. [NCERT History Ch. 1 Page 5] The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789. France, as you would remember, was a full-fledged territorial state in 1789 under the rule of an absolute monarch. The political and constitutional changes that came in the wake of the French Revolution led to the transfer of sovereignty from the monarchy to a body of French citizens. The revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny.
SOURCE B : The Making of Nationalism in Europe [NCERT History Ch. 1 Page 8] you look at the map of mid-eighteenth-century Europe, you will find that there were no ‘nationstates’ as we know them today. What we know today as Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into kingdoms, duchies and cantons whose rulers had their autonomous territories. Eastern and Central Europe were under autocratic monarchies within the territories of which lived diverse peoples. They did not see themselves as sharing a collective identity or a common culture. Often, they even spoke different languages and belonged to different ethnic groups.
SOURCE C : The Aristocracy and the New Middle Class [NCERT History Ch. 1 Page 8] Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominant class on the continent. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional divisions. They owned estates in the countryside and also town-houses. They spoke French for purposes of diplomacy and in high society. Their families were often connected by ties of marriage. This powerful aristocracy was, however, numerically a small group. The majority of the population was made up of the peasantry. To the west, the bulk of the land was farmed by tenants and small owners, while in Eastern and Central Europe the pattern of landholding was characterised by vast estates which were cultivated by serfs. Marks 3
Questions : SOURCE A : The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation
(i) What did the French Revolution proclaim?
SOURCE B : The Making of Nationalism in Europe
(ii) Mention the characteristics by which you could differentiate between the residents of Eastern and Central Europe.
SOURCE C : The Aristocracy and the New Middle Class
(iii) What was the difference between the pattern of landholding in (i) Western Europe and
(ii) Central and Eastern Europe?
(i) The French Revolution proclaimed that it was the people who would henceforth constitute the nation and shape its destiny.
(ii) People from Eastern and Central Europe did not see themselves as sharing a collective identity of a common culture. They even spoke different
languages and belonged to different ethnic groups.
(iii) In Western Europe, most of the land was cultivated by tenants and small owners, while in Eastern and Central Europe the pattern of landholding was characterized by vast estates which were cultivated by serfs.
Q.19. “The first clear expression of nationalism came with the French Revolution in 1789.” Explain the meaning of nationalism and throw light on the statement. Marks 5
Ans. Nationalism is a feeling of people within a state territory, which makes them develop a sense of collective identity and share history or descent. This feeling works as a binding force among people. Before 1789, France was under absolute monarchy. With French Revolution, Monarchy was thrown out and a sovereign body of French citizens was established.
This revolution made France the nation-state and made many political and constitutional changes like:
(i) A new French flag was adopted to replace the former royal standard
(ii) The Estates General renamed as General Assembly, became an elected body.
(iii) Centralised administration and uniform civil laws were made for citizens.
(iv) Uniform weighing and measurement system was adopted.
(v) French became the national language of France.
All these changes gave a clear expression of collectivism and gave people true power to shape the destiny of France. Thus, France became a nation-state and the world got a clear expression of nationalism through the French Revolution.
Q.20. Explain the role of Giuseppe Mazzini in the unification of Italy. Marks 5
Write a note on Giuseppe Mazzini. [NCERT]
Ans. Role of Mazzini in the unification of Italy:
(i) Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary, born in Genoa in 1807.
(ii) He founded various secret societies such as ‘Young Italy’ and ‘Young Europe’.
(iii) He attempted a revolution in Liguria.
(iv) He wanted unification with a wider alliance of nations.
(v) He frightened conservatives through the opposition of monarchy and vision of democratic republics.
(vi) He favoured war for the unification of Italy.
(vii) He wanted economic development and political dominance. (Any five)
|1. What is the meaning of nationalism in Europe?|
|2. How did nationalism impact Europe during the 19th century?|
|3. Who were the key figures in the rise of nationalism in Europe?|
|4. How did the French Revolution contribute to the rise of nationalism in Europe?|
|5. What were the consequences of the rise of nationalism in Europe?|