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Types & Classification: Roads | Transportation Engineering - Civil Engineering (CE) PDF Download

History: 
The invention of wheel brought up the necessity of providing a hard surface to move the vehicles. Such trace of road network is believed to have existed in Mesopotamia in the period of 3500 BC. The first road on which there is some authentic records is that of Assyrian empire constructed by about 1900 BC. Only during Roman empire the roads were built in large scales.

Roman Roads: Many of the early roman roads were of elaborate construction.
Types & Classification: Roads | Transportation Engineering - Civil Engineering (CE)
 

The main features of Roman roads are:

□     They were built straight regardless of gradients
□     They were built after the soft soil was removed and a hard stratum was reached
□     The total thickness of the construction was as high as 0.75 to 1.2 mtrs at some places, even though the magnitude of wheel loads of animal drawn vehicles was very low.
□     Larges stones were laid in lime mortar at the bottom. Vertical kerbs stones were place along the side of trench.
□     Large size of broken stones missed in lime mortar was laid over the large stones


FRENCH Roads (Tresaguet Construction):
The main feature of this was that the thickness of construction need be only in the order of 30 cm. Further due consideration was given to sub grade moisture condition and drainage of surface water.

Types & Classification: Roads | Transportation Engineering - Civil Engineering (CE)

1) The sub grade was prepared by large foundation stones
2) The top wearing course was made of smaller and compacted to a thickness of about 5 stones cm at the edges and gradually increased towards the centre, giving a cross slope.
3) The shoulders were also provided cross slope to drain the surface water.

John Macadam Construction: 
□ It is the first method based on scientific thinking.
□ It was realized that the stresses due to wheel load of traffic gets decrease at the lower layers of the pavement and therefore it is not necessary to provide large and strong boulders stones as foundation.
□ Various modem roads are subsequent improvement of this type of constructions

Types & Classification: Roads | Transportation Engineering - Civil Engineering (CE)


Necessity of Highway Planning 
Planning is the basic requirement for any new project or an expansion program me.
Particularly when funds available are limited and requirement are higher.
The objects of planning are:
1.To plan a road network for efficient and safe traffic operations, but at minimum cost. Here the costs of construction, maintenance and renewal of pavement layers and the vehicle operation costs are to be given due consideration.
2.To arrive at the road system and the lengths of different categories of roads this could provide maximum utility and could be constructed with in available resources during the plan period.
3. To fix up date wise priorities for development of each link based on utility as the main criterion for phasing the road development programme.
4. To plan for future requirement and improvements of roads in view of anticipated developments.
5.To work out financing system.

Classification of Roads 
Types of Roads
i) Based on Seasons of the year
a. All weather roads: are those which are negotiable during all weather, expect at major river crossing where interruption to traffic is permissible up to a certain extent.
b. Fair weather roads: are those, the traffic may be interrupted during monsoon season at causeways where streams may overflow across the road.

ii) Based on type of carriage way
a. Paved Roads: provided with a hard pavement course at least of WBM layer
b. Unpaved Roads: not provided with hard pavement surface. Earth and gravel roads are unpaved roads.

iii) Based on type of pavement surface
a. Surface Roads: provided with a bituminous or cement concrete surfacing.
b. Un Surfaced Roads: not provided with bitumen or cement concrete surfacing.

iv) Based on traffic volume
a. Light: Roads on which traffic volume are low. Examples village are ODR roads.
b. Medium: Roads on which the traffic intensity is relatively more to ODR.
c. Heavy: Roads on which the traffic intensity is high.( NH and SH).

v) Based on Load transported or tonnage
a. Class A or Class I: where the vehicles carries less tonnes of load on the roads.
b. Class B or Class II : Roads on which the vehicles carry more loads( LCV, Medium commercial vehicles)
c. Class C or Class III : Roads on which the trucks with heavy tonnes of load is allowed.

vi) Based on Location and function
a. National Highway :
 b. State Highway :
 c. Major district Roads :
 d. Minor or Other District Roads :
 e. Village Roads : 


vii) Based on 3rd 20 year road plan
a. Primary System: (Expressway & NH)
b. Secondary System ( SH & MDR)
c. Tertiary System or Rural Roads (ODR & VR)

viii) Classification of Urban Roads
a. Arterial Roads
b. Sub- arterial Roads
c. Collector streets
d. Local Streets

The document Types & Classification: Roads | Transportation Engineering - Civil Engineering (CE) is a part of the Civil Engineering (CE) Course Transportation Engineering.
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FAQs on Types & Classification: Roads - Transportation Engineering - Civil Engineering (CE)

1. What are the different types of roads in civil engineering?
Ans. In civil engineering, roads can be classified into various types based on their purpose and design. The different types of roads include: - National highways: These are major roads connecting cities and towns across a country. - State highways: Similar to national highways, these roads connect important cities within a state. - Expressways: High-speed roads designed for uninterrupted traffic flow, usually with limited access points. - Rural roads: These roads connect rural areas and are designed to withstand agricultural and local traffic. - Urban roads: Roads within cities and towns that cater to both vehicular and pedestrian traffic.
2. How are roads classified based on their design?
Ans. Roads can be classified based on their design as follows: - Flexible pavement: These roads have multiple layers, including a surface layer, base course, and sub-base course, which provide flexibility and durability. - Rigid pavement: These roads are made of concrete and have a single monolithic slab, providing a rigid and sturdy structure. - Gravel roads: These roads are made of compacted gravel or crushed stone and are commonly found in rural areas. - Asphalt roads: These roads have a surface layer made of asphalt, providing a smooth and durable riding surface.
3. What is the purpose of national highways?
Ans. National highways serve as the backbone of a country's transportation system. They connect major cities and towns across the country, facilitating the movement of goods, services, and people. National highways are designed to handle heavy traffic volumes and are usually built with multiple lanes, proper signage, and safety features.
4. How are expressways different from regular highways?
Ans. Expressways, also known as controlled-access highways or freeways, are designed to provide high-speed, uninterrupted travel. They have limited access points and interchanges to ensure smooth traffic flow. Unlike regular highways, expressways typically have grade-separated interchanges, median barriers, and higher speed limits. They are designed to handle heavy traffic volumes and reduce travel time.
5. What factors are considered in the design of urban roads?
Ans. The design of urban roads takes into account several factors, including: - Traffic flow: The volume of traffic and the expected growth in the future are considered to determine the number of lanes and road width required. - Pedestrian safety: Provision of sidewalks, crosswalks, pedestrian signals, and other features to ensure the safety of pedestrians. - Drainage: Proper drainage systems are incorporated to handle stormwater runoff and prevent waterlogging on the road surface. - Land use and aesthetics: Urban roads often pass through residential, commercial, and recreational areas, so their design considers the surrounding land use and aims to enhance the aesthetic appeal of the area. - Traffic calming measures: Various traffic calming techniques, such as speed bumps, roundabouts, and traffic islands, are implemented to reduce vehicle speeds and improve safety.
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