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Completing Statements: Solved Examples- 2 | Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) - CAT PDF Download

Question 8: The 16th century in Europe was a great century of change. The humanists and artists of the Renaissance would help characterize the age as one of individualism and self-creativity. Humanists such as Petrarch helped restore the dignity of mankind while men like Machiavelli injected humanism into politics. When all is said and done, the Renaissance helped to secularize European society.
A. The year 1543 can be said to have marked the origin of the Scientific Revolution, with Copernicus publishing De Revolutionibus and setting in motion a wave of scientific advance.
B. The century witnessed the growth of royal power, the appearance of centralized monarchies and the discovery of new lands.
C. The very powerful notion that man makes his own history and destiny took root.
D. In the meantime, urbanization continued unabated as did the growth of universities.
Answer: In the meantime, urbanization continued unabated as did the growth of universities.
Explanation:
The paragraph given starts stating that the 16th century was a great century of change in Europe. Though this statement is not specific about what change it is referring to, we see that the rest of the paragraph centers on humanism, talking of individualism, self creativity , dignity of mankind and secularization of the European society. So the correct answer option should relate to the same idea.
Option A talks of the year 1543 heralding the Scientific Revolution. This is not the correct sentence to complete the given paragraph as it does not relate to humanism.
Option B discusses the growth of royal power and centralized monarchies at this time. Again, we can rule out this option, as it does not relate to humanism (human interests, values and dignity) in the 16th century.
Option C clearly is the correct option. The very powerful notion that man creates his own history and destiny took root in the 16th century. This carries forward the idea discussed in the rest of the paragraph.
Option D discusses urbanization and the growth of universities. This is unrelated to the central idea of the given paragraph.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph "
Hence, the answer is Sentence D
Choice D is the correct answer.

Question 9: As democratic nation states reorient themselves to being accountable to global financial markets, non-democratic bodies such as the World Trade Organization, and trade agreements such as General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and Trade in Services Agreement, they will necessarily become less responsive to the aspirations of their own citizens. With overt repression not always the most felicitous or cost-effective policy option, it has become imperative to find ways and means to ideologically tame the economically excluded. This is critical because growing discontent could lead to political instability.
A. This is where behavioral economics in monitoring and ‘nudging’ the behavior of the financial elite comes in.
B. Hence the new focus on the minds and behavior of the poor.
C. Ergo the drive to find market-led solutions to socio-economic problems.
D. Development is about freeing prices and making markets more efficient.
Answer: Development is about freeing prices and making markets more efficient.
Explanation:
This paragraph starts on the premise that democratic nations holding themselves accountable to non-democratic bodies will necessarily become more indifferent to their own citizens. And because undisguised force or clampdown is not appropriate or cost-effective, they look for ways to “ideologically tame” the “economically excluded”, i.e., the unemployed and the poor. It becomes clear here that though the writer says “citizens” in general in the first line of the paragraph, he is specifically referring to the economically excluded as bearing the brunt of efforts to be tamed ideologically. The penultimate line states that “this” (ideological taming) is necessary because growing discontent can lead to political instability.
Let us now look at options to complete the paragraph.
Option A states that this is where behavioral economics in monitoring and ‘nudging’ the behavior of the financial elite comes in. We can rule out this option, as the paragraph is about measures sought to repress the economically excluded. The financial elite, or the wealthy, are not discussed here.
Option B talks of the “new focus” on the “minds and behavior” of the poor. This makes a fitting concluding sentence to the paragraph. Democratic nations holding themselves accountable to non-democratic bodies become less responsive to their own citizens and seek ways and means of ideologically taming the economically excluded, because growing discontent amongst this group can lead to political instability. Hence the focus on the minds and behavior of the poor.
Option C talks of the drive to find market led solutions to socio-economic problems. It is tempting to think of this as a possible conclusion for the paragraph. This is because the paragraph has discussed “market-led” democratic nations and their need to address their socio-economic problems differently. However, an important idea in the paragraph is that overt repression of the economically excluded is neither felicitous nor cost-effective, and so ideological solutions to “taming” them are being sought. Ideology refers to the thinking or beliefs of a group. The solutions looked for are ones that are based in ideology and can bridle the thinking of the economically excluded. Option C, which talks of market led solutions to socio-economic problems, is hence not correct.
Option D tells us that development is about freeing prices and making markets efficient. This is an unrelated idea, and does not add to the given paragraph.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph"
Hence, the answer is Sentence D
Choice D is the correct answer.

Question 10: The real threat from ISIS is not territorial but ideological. Fighters are flocking to the fledgling caliphate because they are attracted to the notion that violence and bloodshed can create a space of totalitarian homogeneity. It’s not simply the attraction of a particular religious interpretation. ISIS offers a counter-narrative to nationalism and the emptiness of godless globalization. The society that the caliphate has created is multi-ethnic, transnational, and fully conversant in the latest technology.
A. We may well look back at the first year of the Islamic State and wax nostalgic about how comparatively placid it was.
B. And yet it also offers a very specific, historically grounded identity.
C. However, ISIS is not a state. States are part of the world that ISIS rejects.
D. It has a 100-year plan for taking over the world and imposing its own version of Islamic orthodoxy.
Answer: And yet it also offers a very specific, historically grounded identity.
Explanation:
The paragraph begins by stating that the threat from ISIS is ideological and not merely restricted to a particular territory. The notion of establishing a homogeneous autocracy through violence is the main attraction of ISIS, and this is not simply related to a particular religious interpretation. In fact, ISIS offers a counter narrative to transcend nationalism and the impersonal emptiness of godless globalization. To substantiate this, in the penultimate line, the paragraph reads that the society ISIS has created is diverse in terms of ethnicity and nationality.
The paragraph thus mainly focuses on the dangerous attraction of ISIS ideology, and what the basis of this is.
From the above it follows that the sentence that completes the paragraph has to focus on how the supporters of the said ideology identify with it despite the society created being modern, multi-ethnic and transnational.
Let us consider the options in order.
Option A- We may well look back at the first year of the Islamic State and wax nostalgic about how comparatively placid it was.
The relatively peaceful first year of ISIS is not an idea that is related to the paragraph given.
Option B - And yet it also offers a very specific, historically grounded identity.
This fits neatly in with the idea of the paragraph. The penultimate line of the paragraph talks of the society the caliphate has created being a diverse mix. The specific, historically grounded identity ISIS offers helps bind this society together.
Option C -However, ISIS is not a state. States are part of the world ISIS rejects.
The penultimate line talks of the society of the caliphate and this option, at the outset, seems to be linked to that and the idea of ISIS not being territorial mentioned in the first line of the paragraph. However, that ISIS should not be thought of as a state- one that is concerned with governance, pensions, civil service and the like- begs further substantiation. It does not satisfactorily complete the given paragraph, which deals with what the attraction of ISIS ideology is - the power and control obtained through violence, the counter narrative to nationalism and godless globalization. The idea that ISIS is not a state and that ISIS rejects the idea of states does not develop on why ISIS ideology is effective in attracting support.
Option D - It has a 100-year plan for taking over the world and imposing its own version of Islamic orthodoxy.
“It” in the sentence above refers to ISIS. However, the penultimate line of the paragraph talks of the society the caliphate has created. If this option were to complete the paragraph, “it” has to refer to that society. It doesn’t. Hence, we rule out this option.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph"
Hence, the answer is Sentence B
Choice B is the correct answer.

Question 11: The notion of giving offence suggests that certain beliefs are so important or valuable to certain people that they should be put beyond the possibility of being insulted, caricatured or even questioned. The importance of the principle of free speech is precisely that it provides a challenge to the idea that some questions are beyond contention, and thus acts as a challenge to authority. Once we give up on the right to offend in the name of “tolerance” or “respect,” we constrain our ability to challenge those in power, and therefore to challenge injustice.
A. For such diverse societies to function and to be fair, we need to show respect for other peoples, cultures, and viewpoints, and quell offensive voices.
B. The right to subject each others’ fundamental beliefs to criticism is the bedrock of an open, diverse, just society.
C. If people are to occupy the same political space without conflict, they mutually have to limit the extent to which they subject each others’ fundamental beliefs to criticism
D. The more that policymakers give license for people to be offended, the more that people will seize the opportunity to feel offended.
Answer: The right to subject each others’ fundamental beliefs to criticism is the bedrock of an open, diverse, just society.
Explanation:
The paragraph given challenges the idea of “giving offence”. It declares that by cordoning off some beliefs as beyond question or parody, the idea of giving offence curtails free speech and our ability to stand up to those in power.
Option A- For such diverse societies to function and to be fair, we need to show respect for other peoples, cultures, and viewpoints, and quell offensive voices.
This statement contradicts the main idea of the paragraph. The paragraph argues against quelling offensive voices. Hence we rule out this option.
Option B- The right to subject each others’ fundamental beliefs to criticism is the bedrock of an open, diverse, just society.
This statement echoes the main idea of the paragraph. It continues the line of thought of the penultimate line that the right to offend gives us the power to challenge power and injustice.
Option C- If people are to occupy the same political space without conflict, they mutually have to limit the extent to which they subject each others’ fundamental beliefs to criticism 

Again, the paragraph contradicts this statement. It argues against limiting free speech. So we cross this option out.
Option D- The more that policy makers give license for people to be offended, the more that people will seize the opportunity to feel offended.
This is a new line of thought—that offence is taken where opportunities to do so are sanctioned by policy makers. It does not conclude the given paragraph.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph"
Hence, the answer is Sentence B
Choice B is the correct answer.

Question 12: The East India Company no longer exists, and it has, thankfully, no exact modern equivalent. Walmart, which is the world’s largest corporation in revenue terms, does not number among its assets a fleet of nuclear submarines; neither Facebook nor Shell possesses regiments of infantry. Yet the East India Company – the first great multinational corporation, and the first to run amok – was the ultimate model for many of today’s joint-stock corporations. The most powerful among them do not need their own armies: they can rely on governments to protect their interests and bail them out. The East India Company remains history’s most terrifying warning about the potential for the abuse of corporate power – and the insidious means by which the interests of shareholders become those of the state. Three hundred and fifteen years after its founding, its story has never been more current. 
A. The East India Company's story is the first example of a nation state extracting, as its price for saving a failing corporation, the right to regulate and severely rein it in.
B. For all the power wielded today by the world’s largest corporations – whether ExxonMobil, Walmart or Google – they are tame beasts compared with the ravaging territorial appetites of the militarized East India Company.
C. Answerable only to its shareholders and with no stake in the just governance of the region, or its long-term wellbeing, the East India Company’s rule quickly turned into the straightforward pillage of India, and the rapid transfer westwards of its wealth.
D. If history shows anything, it is that in the intimate dance between the power of the state and that of the corporation, while the latter can be regulated, it will use all the resources in its power to resist.
Answer: If history shows anything, it is that in the intimate dance between the power of the state and that of the corporation, while the latter can be regulated, it will use all the resources in its power to resist.
Explanation:
The paragraph given argues that the story of the East India Company is still relevant to us. Despite the fact that there are no exact modern equivalents of the East India Company, the example set by it is a warning about the potential abuse of corporate power, relying on governments to bail out of trouble, by which the interests of the shareholders become those of the state.
Let us consider the options in order:
Option A- The East India Company's story is the first example of a nation state extracting, as its price for saving a failing corporation, the right to regulate and severely rein it in.
The paragraph given discusses the East India Company and its relevance in today’s context, especially with regard to large multinational companies and the power they wield over the governments.
Statement A does not conclude the given paragraph. It discusses a different line of thought, of how a government saving a company in crisis extracted from it, in turn, the right to regulate.
Option B- For all the power wielded today by the world’s largest corporations – whether ExxonMobil, Walmart or Google – they are tame beasts compared with the ravaging territorial appetites of the militarized East India Company.
Statement B states that the East India Company was far more powerful than the largest corporations of the world today.
This is not the right option to conclude the paragraph, which talks of the similarities between the corporations of today and the lessons to be learnt from the East India Company.
Option C- Answerable only to its shareholders and with no stake in the just governance of the region, or its long-term wellbeing, the East India Company’s rule quickly turned into the straightforward pillage of India, and the rapid transfer westwards of its wealth.
Statement C tells us how the East India Company quickly rose to power. However, it does not conclude or add to the given paragraph in terms of how and what its example teaches the corporations of today.
Option D- If history shows anything, it is that in the intimate dance between the power of the state and that of the corporation, while the latter can be regulated, it will use all the resources in its power to resist.
This statement is summarizes the relevance of the East India Company in the context of today’s corporations perfectly. This is hence the right option to conclude the paragraph.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph"
Hence, the answer is Sentence D
Choice D is the correct answer.

Question 13: The only guarantee we have of taste is that it will change. In response to novelty, even as the resistance to the unfamiliar reaches a threshold, fluency begets liking. Consider the case of the Sydney Opera House. A few decades ago, the now widely cherished building was the center of a national scandal. Not only did the building not fit the traditional form of an opera house; it did not fit the traditional form of a building. No one thought an opera house could look like the Sydney Opera House until architect Jørn Utzon, taking his idea from a peeled orange, said it could. Utzon changed the idea of what one could ask for in the building, projecting future tastes no one knew they had. 
A. As a dominant sculptural building that can be seen and experienced from all sides, the Sydney Opera House is the focal point of Sydney Harbor and a reflection of its character.
B. In fact, had Utzon had been left to finish his masterpiece, it would have been more beautiful, more functional and less costly than what it turned out to be.
C. Utzon made the building well ahead of its time, far ahead of available technology, and he persevered through extraordinary malicious criticism to a building that changed the image of an entire country.
D. The world changed around the building, in response to it, which is why, in the curious words of one architecture critic, “Utzon’s breathtaking building looks better today than ever.”
Answer: The world changed around the building, in response to it, which is why, in the curious words of one architecture critic, “Utzon’s breathtaking building looks better today than ever.”
Explanation:
The paragraph given argues that when we look at something new, even as we resist the unfamiliar, fluency or familiarity begets liking. The paragraph cites the example of the Sydney Opera House which did not fit in the traditional form of an opera house or building, until Utzon, the architect, “changed the idea of what one could ask for in the building, projecting future tastes no one knew they had”.
Now let us look at the options and see which one carries forward the idea:
Option A: As a dominant sculptural building that can be seen and experienced from all sides, the Sydney Opera House is the focal point of Sydney Harbor and a reflection of its character.
This option discusses how the Opera House dominates the Sydney Harbor and reflects its character. The penultimate line of the paragraph given, on the other hand, focusses on how Utzon projected future tastes and help changed the idea of what a building could be like. Option A does not carry forward this idea, and so is not the right one to complete the paragraph.
Option B: In fact, had Utzon had been left to finish his masterpiece, it would have been more beautiful, more functional and less costly than what it turned out to be.
This option discusses some completely new ideas- Utzon not finishing his masterpiece and the building being less functional and costlier than it would have been if he had. So we rule out this option to complete the paragraph.
Option C: Utzon made the building well ahead of its time, far ahead of available technology, and he persevered through extraordinary malicious criticism to a building that changed the image of an entire country.
This option focusses on Utzon- how he conceived an idea well ahead of its time, how he executed it far ahead of available technology and how he toiled on ignoring criticism. At the outset, it seems to be a good option to complete the paragraph, as the penultimate line of the paragraph too is about Utzon and his revolutionary and futuristic idea of what one could ask for in a building. But is the focus of the paragraph Utzon? It isn’t. The focus of the paragraph is on the fact that tastes change over time and fluency begets liking. The example of Sydney Opera House and Utzon’s brilliance in projecting tastes “no one knew they had” is discussed in the paragraph to support the central point about changing taste. Option C, on the other hand, focusses on Utzon’s achievements. This is not the best option to complete the paragraph.
Option D- The world changed around the building, in response to it, which is why, in the curious words of one architecture critic, “Utzon’s breathtaking building looks better today than ever.”
This, clearly, sums up the main idea of the paragraph. The world, in response to the Sydney Opera House, “changed around the building”. Our taste has changed from rejection/ resistance to the building to regarding it as breathtaking.
This option is a better one than option C to complete the paragraph. The primary focus of option D is how the world changed in response to an unfamiliar idea, which is the main point of the paragraph, whereas the primary focus of option C is Utzon.
The question is " Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph "
Hence, the answer is Sentence D
Choice D is the correct answer.

Question 14: Behavioral geneticists have found that the effects of being brought up in a given family are sometimes detectable in childhood, but that they tend to peter out by the time the child has grown up. That is, the reach of the genes appears to get stronger as we age, not weaker. Perhaps our genes affect our environments, which in turn affect ourselves. Young children are at the mercy of parents and have to adapt to a world that is not of their choosing. As they get older, however, they can gravitate to the micro-environments that best suit their natures. Whatever genetic quirks incline a youth toward one niche or another will be magnified over time as they develop the parts of themselves that allow them to flourish in their chosen worlds. 
A. Although it is true that fraternal twins raised apart have remarkable similarities in most respects, still the intervention of the environment has caused several differences in the way they behave.
B. However, it is still not known whether the more abstract attributes like personality, intelligence and likes and dislikes are gene-coded in our DNA, too.
C. The environment, then, is not a stamping machine that pounds us into a shape but a cafeteria of options from which our genes and our histories incline us to choose.
D. But even knowing the totality of genetic predictors, there will be many things about ourselves that no genome scan — and for that matter, no demographic checklist — will ever reveal.
Answer: The environment, then, is not a stamping machine that pounds us into a shape but a cafeteria of options from which our genes and our histories incline us to choose.
Explanation:
The main idea of this paragraph is that the genes get stronger as we age and propel us to make choices best suited to our natures.
Now let us examine the options to complete the paragraph:
Option A- Although it is true that fraternal twins raised apart have remarkable similarities in most respects, still the intervention of the environment have caused several differences in the way they behave.
This line emphasizes the importance of the environment on behavioral differences of fraternal twins. The main idea of the given paragraph, however, is that genes matter more than the environment in shaping behavior.
Option B- However, it is still not known whether the more abstract attributes like personality, intelligence and likes and dislikes are gene-coded in our DNA, too.
This line talks of attributes gene-coded in our DNA. This is unrelated to the given paragraph, which talks of how our genes guide the choices we make in response to our environment.
Option C- The environment, then, is not a stamping machine that pounds us into a shape but a cafeteria of options from which our genes and our histories incline us to choose.
This line sums up the main idea of the paragraph well- that the environment we are in is like a cafeteria of options, and our genes direct us to the options we choose from the environment. This is hence the right choice to complete the paragraph.
Option D- But even knowing the totality of genetic predictors, there will be many things about ourselves that no genome scan — and for that matter, no demographic checklist — will ever reveal.
This option talks of ‘genome scans’ and ‘demographic checklists’, which have not been discussed in the paragraph. We can hence rule this option out as the right one to complete the paragraph.
The question is "Choose the Sentence that completes the Paragraph"
Hence, the answer is Sentence C
Choice C is the correct answer.

The document Completing Statements: Solved Examples- 2 | Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) - CAT is a part of the CAT Course Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC).
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FAQs on Completing Statements: Solved Examples- 2 - Verbal Ability (VA) & Reading Comprehension (RC) - CAT

1. What is the significance of completing statements questions in exams?
Ans. Completing statements questions in exams help assess a student's understanding and comprehension of a given text or passage. These questions require students to fill in the missing words or phrases in a statement, demonstrating their ability to accurately interpret the context and infer information.
2. How can completing statements questions enhance critical thinking skills?
Ans. Completing statements questions require students to analyze the given text or passage and make logical connections between the available information and the missing words or phrases. By engaging in this process, students develop their critical thinking skills as they assess different options, evaluate the context, and choose the most appropriate completion.
3. What strategies can be used to effectively tackle completing statements questions?
Ans. To effectively tackle completing statements questions, students can employ various strategies. These may include carefully reading the entire passage to understand the context, identifying keywords or clues that can help determine the missing words, eliminating options that do not align with the passage's meaning, and using logical reasoning to select the most suitable completion.
4. Are there any tips to improve accuracy in completing statements questions?
Ans. Yes, there are several tips to improve accuracy in completing statements questions. Firstly, it is crucial to thoroughly read the passage or text to grasp its main ideas and tone. Secondly, paying attention to any provided clues or keywords can guide the selection of the correct completion. Additionally, practicing similar question types can enhance familiarity and confidence in tackling these questions, ultimately leading to improved accuracy.
5. Can completing statements questions be used to assess language proficiency?
Ans. Yes, completing statements questions can be used as an effective tool to assess language proficiency. These questions require a strong understanding of grammar, vocabulary, and context. By evaluating a student's ability to accurately complete statements, examiners can gauge their language skills, including their comprehension, grammar usage, and vocabulary knowledge.
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