Methods of Charging: Friction, Conduction & Induction

# Methods of Charging: Friction, Conduction & Induction | Physics for Airmen Group X - Airforce X Y / Indian Navy SSR PDF Download

METHODS OF CHARGING
(i) Charging by friction: Charging by friction is the oldest form of charging. It was found that when an amber rod is rubbed with fur, the rod became negatively charged. The two bodies acquire opposite signs of electricity; one gets positively charged, while the other becomes negatively charged.

Fig. Charging by friction

When two bodies are charged by friction, they acquire the same magnitude of charge. Furthermore, the bodies retain these excess charges even when they are separated from each other.
Note: Charging involves transformation of mass.

(ii) Charging by conduction: In charging by contact, an uncharged body is brought into contact with a charged body. The uncharged body acquires the same sign of charge as the charged body. The total charge is distributed between the two bodies.

Fig. Charging by conduction

(iii) Charging by Induction
Charging by induction occurs when we bring a charged object near a conductor. It is not for no reasons that we say near. The charged object does not physically touch the conductor. The charged object is just allowed to get close to the conductor.
As a result, the conductor will be charged. We say that a charge has been induced in the conductor. We will make this clear with an experiment.

Experiment
Step 1: Consider the two spheres above made with a metal. Since metal is a good conductor, it is a good choice for this experiment.

• They touch each other, so they become a single conductor.
• We put them on insulated stands so charges or electricity does not travel to the ground.
• The two spheres right now form a neutral system. This means that there is the same amount of electrons and protons in each sphere.

Step 2: We get a rod that is negatively charged and we put it next to the two spheres. The rod is shown on the right in green. The lines inside the rod represent negative charges. Electrons in sphere B are repelled by the rod and move to sphere A to create an excessive charge called also net charge. This situation creates also a net charge in sphere B.
We say that a charge has been induced on the spheres.

Step 3: We can separate the spheres while the rod is still there.
Step 4: Finally, we can remove the rod completely.
The spheres will keep their charges and this is what we mean by charging by induction. The charges on the spheres are equal and opposite.

Note: That the charges are equal because for each single electron that goes to A and therefore creates a single negative net charge, it leaves B with a single positive charge.

In our example above, let’s assume electrons went to A creating a situation where B has a positive charge with protons. Keep in mind that spheres A and B could have billions and billions of electrons. The reason that sphere A is charged now is because it has an excess of 3 electrons although this is a small charge. By the same token, the reason sphere B is charged is because it has 3 more protons now than electrons.

Charging by induction and grounding
Use only 1 sphere this time and induce a charge again with a charged rod. Then, put your finger on the side where negative charge is induced i.e. away from the rod.
When you touch the metal with your finger, electrons leave the sphere by means of your finger and enter the ground through your body.
When we allow charges or electricity to leave a conductor by touching it, we call it grounding the conductor.

Note: That neutral body does not imply a ‘charge-less’ body. It means a microscopic balance of –ve and +ve charge in the body.

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## FAQs on Methods of Charging: Friction, Conduction & Induction - Physics for Airmen Group X - Airforce X Y / Indian Navy SSR

 1. What is friction charging and how does it work?
Friction charging is a method of charging where two objects rub against each other, causing the transfer of electrons between them. This transfer creates a build-up of electric charge on the objects, resulting in one object becoming positively charged and the other becoming negatively charged. This is commonly observed when rubbing a balloon against hair, where the balloon becomes negatively charged and can stick to surfaces due to the attraction between opposite charges.
 2. How does conduction charging occur?
Conduction charging occurs when two objects come into direct contact with each other, allowing the transfer of electrons between them. If one object has an excess of electrons and the other has a deficit, the electrons will flow from the object with the surplus to the object with the deficit until equilibrium is reached. This transfer of electrons leads to the charging of the objects.
 3. What is induction charging and how is it different from conduction charging?
Induction charging is a method of charging where a charged object is brought near a neutral object, causing a redistribution of electrons in the neutral object without direct contact. When the charged object is brought close, it repels or attracts electrons in the neutral object, resulting in one side of the object becoming positively charged and the other side becoming negatively charged. Unlike conduction charging, induction charging does not involve direct electron transfer between objects.
 4. Can all materials be charged through friction, conduction, and induction?
No, not all materials can be charged through friction, conduction, and induction. The ability of a material to be charged depends on its conductivity and the ease with which it gains or loses electrons. Materials that are good conductors, such as metals, have electrons that can move freely, making it difficult to charge them through friction or induction. On the other hand, insulating materials like rubber or plastic can be charged easily through friction and induction due to their higher resistance to electron flow.
 5. What are some real-life applications of charging by friction, conduction, and induction?
Charging by friction, conduction, and induction has various practical applications. Some examples include: - Photocopiers and laser printers use induction charging to transfer toner particles onto paper. - Van de Graaff generators use friction charging to create high voltage for scientific experiments. - Static electricity generated through friction charging can be used in air filters to attract and remove dust particles. - Lightning is a natural phenomenon caused by the buildup and discharge of electrical charge through induction and friction in the atmosphere. - Electrostatic spray painting utilizes conduction charging to create a charged paint mist that adheres efficiently to surfaces.

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