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NATIONAL INTEGRATION
India is a land of widespread diversities in terms of religion, language, caste, tribe, race, region and so on. Hence, the achievement of national integration becomes very essential for the all-around development and prosperity of the country.

MEANING OF NATIONAL INTEGRATION
“National integration implies avoidance of divisive movements that would balkanise the nation and presence of attitudes throughout the society that give preference to national and public interest as distinct from parochial interests” - Myron Weiner.

OBSTACLES TO NATIONAL INTEGRATION
1. Regionalism:- Regionalism refers to sub-nationalism and sub-territorial loyalty. It implies the love for a particular region or state in preference to the country as a whole. Regionalism is a country-wide phenomenon which manifests itself in the following six forms:
(i) Demand of the people of certain states for secession from the Indian Union (like Khalistan, Dravid Nad, Mizos, Nagas and so on).
(ii) Demand of the people of certain areas for separate statehood (like Telengana, Bodoland, Uttarkhand, Vidharbha, Gorkhaland and so on).
(iii) Demand of people of certain Union Territories for full-fledged statehood (like Manipur, Tripura, Puducherry, Delhi, Goa, Daman and Diu and so on).
(iv) Inter-state boundary disputes (like Chandigarh and Belgaum) and riverwater disputes (like Cauvery, Krishna, Ravi-Beas and so on).

2. Communalism: Communalism means love for one’s religious community in preference to the nation and a tendency to promote the communal interest at the cost of the interest of other religious communities.

3. Casteism: Indian civilization was split into castes, sub-castes, and sub-castes based on birth in ancient times. People from higher castes acquire a superiority complex against those from lower castes. People become enraged as a result of this. The development of a sense of oneness among the people becomes extremely challenging.

4. Linguism: Linguism means love for one's language and hatred towards other language speaking people. The phenomena of linguism, like that of regionalism, communalism or casteism, is also a consequence of political process.

NATIONAL INTEGRATION COUNCIL:
The National Integration Council (NIC) was constituted in 1961, following a decision taken at a national conference on unity in diversity’, convened by the Central government, at New Delhi. It consisted of the prime minister as chairman, central home minister, chief ministers of states, seven leaders of political parties, the chairman of the UGC, two educationists, the commissioner for SCs and STs and seven other persons nominated by the prime minister. The council was directed to examine the problem of national integration in all its aspects and make necessary recommendations to deal with it.

The document Laxmikanth Summary: National Integration | Indian Polity for UPSC CSE is a part of the UPSC Course Indian Polity for UPSC CSE.
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FAQs on Laxmikanth Summary: National Integration - Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

1. What is national integration?
Ans. National integration refers to the process of bringing together people from different cultural, religious, linguistic, and regional backgrounds to form a cohesive and unified nation. It involves promoting a sense of belongingness, mutual respect, and harmony among all citizens of a country.
2. Why is national integration important?
Ans. National integration is important for several reasons. Firstly, it helps in maintaining peace and stability in a diverse society by reducing conflicts and tensions among different communities. Secondly, it promotes a sense of national identity and pride, fostering a collective spirit of patriotism. Lastly, it facilitates social and economic development by encouraging cooperation and collaboration among various regions and communities.
3. How can national integration be achieved?
Ans. National integration can be achieved through various means. Firstly, educational institutions play a crucial role in promoting understanding and tolerance among students from different backgrounds. Secondly, the media can contribute by highlighting the commonalities and shared values among diverse communities. Thirdly, the government can implement policies that ensure equal opportunities and rights for all citizens, irrespective of their background. Lastly, promoting cultural exchange programs, interfaith dialogues, and inclusive social initiatives can also contribute to national integration.
4. What are the challenges to national integration?
Ans. National integration faces several challenges, such as regionalism, communalism, and linguistic divisions. These challenges arise due to political and social factors, including the manipulation of identity politics, economic disparities, and historical grievances. Additionally, lack of awareness, prejudice, and discrimination can also hinder the process of national integration.
5. What are the benefits of national integration?
Ans. National integration brings numerous benefits to a country. It fosters social cohesion and harmony, leading to a peaceful and inclusive society. It promotes cultural diversity and enriches the nation's heritage. Moreover, national integration strengthens the country's unity and resilience, making it more capable of facing internal and external challenges. Additionally, it enhances economic growth and development by leveraging the skills and resources of all citizens.
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