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Mind Map: Breathing & Exchange of Gases | Biology Class 11 - NEET PDF Download

Mind Map: Breathing & Exchange of Gases | Biology Class 11 - NEET

The document Mind Map: Breathing & Exchange of Gases | Biology Class 11 - NEET is a part of the NEET Course Biology Class 11.
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FAQs on Mind Map: Breathing & Exchange of Gases - Biology Class 11 - NEET

1. How does the process of breathing work?
Ans. Breathing is a vital process that involves the intake of oxygen and exhalation of carbon dioxide. When we inhale, the diaphragm contracts and moves downward, increasing the volume of the chest cavity. This expansion creates a vacuum, causing air to rush into the lungs. Oxygen from the inhaled air is then transferred to the red blood cells in the lungs, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, is released from the blood into the lungs. During exhalation, the diaphragm relaxes and moves upward, reducing the chest cavity's volume and pushing the air rich in carbon dioxide out of the body.
2. What is the role of the alveoli in the exchange of gases?
Ans. The alveoli are tiny air sacs located at the end of the bronchioles in the lungs. They are the primary site for the exchange of gases between the respiratory system and the bloodstream. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses across the thin walls of the alveoli into the capillaries, where it binds to red blood cells. At the same time, carbon dioxide, a waste product produced by cells, diffuses from the capillaries into the alveoli to be exhaled. This exchange of gases in the alveoli ensures that oxygen is delivered to the body's tissues while removing carbon dioxide.
3. What are the main factors that affect the rate of breathing?
Ans. The rate of breathing is influenced by various factors. One key factor is the level of carbon dioxide in the blood. When carbon dioxide levels increase, it triggers the brain's respiratory centers to stimulate faster and deeper breathing to remove the excess carbon dioxide. Similarly, the oxygen levels in the blood, physical activity, emotions, and certain medical conditions such as lung diseases can also affect the rate of breathing. Additionally, external factors like altitude and temperature can influence breathing rate as well.
4. How does smoking affect the respiratory system?
Ans. Smoking has detrimental effects on the respiratory system. The chemicals in tobacco smoke irritate and damage the lining of the respiratory tract, leading to inflammation and increased mucus production. This can result in chronic bronchitis and coughing. Smoking also damages the cilia, tiny hair-like structures that line the respiratory tract and help remove mucus and foreign particles. As a result, smokers are more prone to respiratory infections. Furthermore, smoking causes the alveoli to lose their elasticity, leading to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and increasing the risk of lung cancer.
5. What are some common respiratory disorders?
Ans. There are several common respiratory disorders that can affect the breathing and exchange of gases. Asthma is a chronic condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, causing wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, leading to breathing difficulties and reduced airflow. Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs, causing cough, fever, and difficulty breathing. Other respiratory disorders include bronchitis, sinusitis, and pulmonary embolism.
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