Surveying is the process of determining relative positions of different objects on the surface of the earth by measuring horizontal distances between them and preparing a map to any suitable scale. Measurements are taken in a horizontal plane.
Reconnaissance
Objectives of reconnaissance
Principle of working from whole to part
It is a fundamental rule to always work from the whole to the part. This implies a precise control surveying as the first consideration followed by subsidiary detail surveying.
Types of Surveying
On the basis of whether the curvature of the earth is taken into account or not, surveying can be divided into two main categories:
Classification Of Surveying
Surveying is classified based on various criteria including the instruments used, purpose, the area surveyed and the method used.
Scale is the fixed ratio that every distance on the plan bears with corresponding distance on the ground.
Representative Fraction (RF) = map distance/Ground distance
Error Due to Use of the Wrong Scale
Error Due to Incorrect Length of Chain or Type
True length of the line, (l) = (L'/L)xl'
Here, L = Designated length of tape/chain
L’ = Actual but wrong length of the chain or tape
l’ = Wrong measured length of the line
l = Actual true length of the line
Case (a): In case of Area
A = (L'/L)^{2}.A
where, A = True area
A’ = Wrong measured area
Case (b): In case of volume
V = (L'/L)^{3}.V'
where, V = True volume
V’ = Wrong measured volume
Most Probable Value
where, E_{s} = Probable error of single observation
V = Difference between any single observation and the mean of the series
E_{m} = Probable error of the mean
n = Number of observation in the series
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1. What are the fundamental concepts of surveying in Civil Engineering? 
2. Why is surveying important in Civil Engineering? 
3. What are the different types of surveying techniques used in Civil Engineering? 
4. How is surveying data collected in Civil Engineering? 
5. What are the challenges faced in surveying in Civil Engineering? 

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