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Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP)

Directive Principles of State Policy | Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

  • Directive Principle of State Policy provides guidelines to Central and State governments in India, to be kept in mind while framing laws and policies and are mentioned in part 4 of the constitution.

Directive Principles of State Policy | Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

  • Articles 36-51 under Part-IV of the Indian Constitution deal with Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP).
  • The provisions contained in this Part cannot be enforced by any court, but these principles are fundamental in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the State to apply these principles in making laws.
  • The framers of the Constitution borrowed this idea from the Irish Constitution of 1937, which had copied it from the Spanish Constitution. American constitution did not have DPSP.
  • While most of the Fundamental Rights are negative obligations on the state, DPSPs are positive obligations on the state, though not enforceable in a court of law.
  • Dr B R Ambedkar described these principles as ‘novel features’ of the Indian Constitution.

Directive Principles of State Policy | Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

Features of Directive Principle

  • The basic aim of DPSPs is to set up social and economic goals before the lawmakers 
  • To bring socio-economic change in the country
  • To fulfil the basic needs of the common man
  • To reshape the structure of Indian society in direction of greater socio-economic equality.

DPSPs are fundamentals in the governance of the country and shall be considered dutifully by the state while making laws, but DPSPs are not enforceable in a court of law.

  • If a state fails to fulfil these obligations, one cannot go to a court of law
  • DPSPs only provides a yardstick for measuring the success or failure of the government

Articles 36 to 51 deal with the provisions of the Directive Principles and are broadly classified into

Classification of Directive Principles of State Policy

Directive Principles of State Policy | Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

  • Socialist principles
  • Gandhian principles
  • Liberal intellectual principles

➤ Socialist Principles

  • To secure a social order for the promotion of the welfare of the people.
  • To strive to minimize inequalities of income i.e. operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment;
  • Ownership and control of the material resources of the community are so distributed as best to subserve the common good;
  • Equal justice and free legal aid.
  • Ownership and control of material resources of the community shall be so distributed so as to subserve the common good.
  • Equal pay for equal work.
  • The Health and strength of workers and the tender age of children must not be abused.
  • Right to work, to education, and to public assistance in certain cases.
  • Provision of just and humane conditions for work and maternity relief.
  • Participation of workers in the management of the industries.
  • Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.
  • Children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.

Directive Principles of State Policy | Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

➤ Liberal Principles

  • Uniform Civil Code for the citizens.
  • Provide free and compulsory education for children below 14 years.
  • Separation of Judiciary from Executive.
  • To promote international peace and amity.
  • Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance.
  • Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife.

Directive Principles of State Policy | Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

➤ The Gandhian Principles

  • Organization of Village Panchayats (Article- 40) and to promote the cottage industry. (Article- 43)
  • Promotion of educational and economic interests of the SCs, the STs, and the other weaker sections of the society. (Article- 46)
  • To bring about the prohibition of intoxicating drinks and drugs that are injurious to health.
  • Organization of agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines to prohibit the slaughter of cows, calves, and other milch and draught animals.

Directive Principles of State Policy | Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

Directive Principles of State Policy | Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

Directive Principles of State Policy | Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

Article 36 - 51: Directive Principles of State Policy

Directive Principles of State Policy | Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

➤ Article 36: Definition

  • In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, “the State” has the same meaning as in Part III.

➤ Article 37: Application of the principles contained in this part

  • The provisions contained in this Part shall not be enforced by any court, but the principles therein laid down are nevertheless fundamental in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the State to apply these principles in making laws.

➤ Article 38: State to secure a social order for the promotion of the welfare of the people

  • The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice, social, economic and political, shall inform all the institutions of the national life.
  • The State shall, in particular, strive to minimise the inequalities in income, and endeavour to eliminate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities, not only amongst individuals but also amongst groups of people residing in different areas or engaged in different vocations.

➤ Article 39: Certain principles of policy to be followed by the state

  • The State shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing:
    (a) that the citizen, men and women equally, have the right to an adequate means of livelihood;
    (b) that the ownership and control of the material resources of the community are so distributed as best to subserve the common good;
    (c) that the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment;
    (d) that there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women;
    (e) that the health and strength of workers, men and women, and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength;
    (f) that children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.

➤ Article 39a: Equal justice and free legal aid

  • The State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promotes justice, on a basis of equal opportunity, and shall, in particular, provide free legal aid, by suitable legislation or schemes or in any other way, to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities.

➤ Article 40: Organisation of village panchayats

  • The State shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government.

➤ Article 41: Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases

  • The State shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, and in other cases of undeserved want.

➤ Article 42: Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief

  • The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.

➤ Article 43: Living wage, etc., for workers

  • The State shall endeavor to secure, by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way, to all workers agricultural, industrial or otherwise, work, a living wage, conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and, in particular, the State shall endeavour to promote cottage industries on an individual or co-operative basis in rural areas.

➤ Article 43a: Participation of workers in management of industries

  • The State shall take steps, by suitable legislation or in any other way, to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings, establishments or other organisation engaged in any industry.

➤ Article 44: Uniform civil code for the citizen

  • The State shall endeavour to secure for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India.

➤ Article 45: Provision for free and compulsory education for children

  • The State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.

➤ Article 46: Promotion of educational and economic interests of scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other weaker sections

  • The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.

➤ Article 47: Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health

  • The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and, in particular, the State shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purpose of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health.

➤ Article 48: Organization of agriculture and animal husbandry

  • The State shall endeavour to organize agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines and shall, in particular, take steps for preserving and improving the breeds, and prohibiting the slaughter, of cows and calves and other milch and draught cattle.

➤ Article 48a: Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wildlife

  • The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country.

➤ Article 49: Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance

  • It shall be the obligation of the State to protect every monument or place or object of artistic or historic interest, declared by or under law made by Parliament to be of national importance, from spoliation, disfigurement, destruction, removal, disposal or export, as the case may be.

➤ Article 50: Separation of judiciary from the executive

  • The State shall take steps to separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State.

➤ Article 51: Promotion of international peace and security

  • The State shall endeavour to:
    (a) promote international peace and security;
    (b) maintain just and honourable relations between nations;
    (c) foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another; and
    (d) encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.
The document Directive Principles of State Policy | Indian Polity for UPSC CSE is a part of the UPSC Course Indian Polity for UPSC CSE.
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FAQs on Directive Principles of State Policy - Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

1. What are the Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP)?
Ans. The Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) are a set of guidelines or principles provided by the Constitution of India to the government for the establishment of a welfare state. They aim to promote the social, economic, and political well-being of the citizens and encourage the government to work towards achieving social justice and equality.
2. How are the Directive Principles of State Policy different from Fundamental Rights?
Ans. The Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) and Fundamental Rights are both significant components of the Indian Constitution. While Fundamental Rights are justiciable and enforceable in court, the DPSPs are non-justiciable, which means that they cannot be legally enforced in a court of law. However, the DPSPs serve as a guiding framework for the government to formulate policies and legislation.
3. What are the key areas covered by the Directive Principles of State Policy?
Ans. The Directive Principles of State Policy cover a wide range of areas including social justice, economic welfare, international relations, governance, and environmental protection. They emphasize the eradication of poverty, provision of equal opportunities, promotion of education, protection of public health, and safeguarding the rights of marginalized sections of society.
4. How do the Directive Principles of State Policy influence government policies and legislation?
Ans. The Directive Principles of State Policy provide a moral and philosophical foundation for the government's policies and legislation. Although non-justiciable, they guide the government in formulating laws and implementing welfare schemes. The government takes into consideration the DPSPs while making policy decisions to ensure the overall development and well-being of the citizens.
5. Can the Directive Principles of State Policy be amended or modified?
Ans. Yes, the Directive Principles of State Policy can be amended or modified by the Parliament. However, any amendment that seeks to take away or abridge the principles that form the basic structure of the Constitution is not permissible. The courts also play a crucial role in interpreting and protecting the DPSPs, ensuring their relevance and applicability in the changing socio-political landscape of the country.
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