Chapter Notes: Fractions

# Fractions Class 3 Notes Maths

 Table of contents Understanding Fractions: More than Four equal Part Fraction of a Group or a Collection A Fraction Represents a Division Numeral Fraction on the Number Line

Imagine you have a delicious apple. Now, if you eat just half of it, that's like a special way of talking about it called a "fraction." And if you eat only a quarter of the apple, that's another kind of fraction. So, fractions help us describe and share things when we're talking about parts of a whole, like your tasty apple!

Fractions are a way of naming and talking about equal parts of something, like a piece of cake or a group of toys.

### Understanding Fractions:

Let's understand Fractions with the help of an example: Imagine a one whole cake being cut into 4 pieces, so how would you represent each of the four cut pieces?
Here we say, each of the four pieces is a part of the whole cake or simply it was one of the four equal pieces of the whole cake.
That means one piece is one-fourth portion of the whole cake or 1/4th of the cake, here 1/4 is our fraction, Easy right?

Now we know that 1 /4 is a fraction where 1 is the numerator and 4 is the denominator and the whole 1/4 is called a fraction.

A fraction consists of two parts:-

1. Numerator: The part which is written above the horizontal line is called as numerator.
2. Denominator: The part which is written below the sleeping line horizontal line is called as denominator.

Thus, a number is written above and a below the horizontal line and then the arrangement is called as fraction.
Let's explore further,

### Halves

Two Equal Parts
(a) Anuja buys a chocolate bar. She divides it into two equal parts so that she can give one part each to her two children.

• Two equal parts are called halves.
• Each one of the equal parts is called one-half.
• One-half means 1 part out of 2 equal parts. It is written as 1 / 2.

(b) Look at the figures given alongside.
Each shape is divided into 2 equal parts.
One part is shaded in each shape. Each shaded part represents 1 / 2.

### Thirds

Three Equal Parts
(a) Rajat and Seema went to a restaurant to eat pizza with their mother.
The mother ordered one pizza. She told them to share it equally. They divided it into 3 equal parts. Three equal parts are called thirds.
Each one of the equal parts is one-third of the whole. It is written as 1 / 3.
(b) In the picture given alongside, each shape is divided into 3 equal parts. One part out of the 3 parts is shaded. Each shaded part of the shape is one-third of the whole.

### Fourths

Four Equal Parts
(a) Rajat’s mother cut the pizza into four equal parts for Rajat and his three friends.
When we divide a whole into 4 equal parts we say that we divide it in fourths. Each part is one-fourth or one-quarter of the whole. This is also written as 1 / 4.
(b) Each shape, given alongside, is divided into 4 equal parts.
One out of the 4 equal parts is shaded. Each shaded part of the shape is one-fourth of the whole.
Each equal part is called one-fourth.
One-fourth is also called as one-quarter.
One-fourth means 1 part out of 4 equal parts.

### More than Four equal Part

Just as you say one-half, one-third, one-fourth and write them as 1 / 2, 1 / 3 and 1 / 4 respectively, similarly, you can name other equal parts as under:
(a) When a whole is divided into five equal parts, each part is called one-fifth.
It is written as 1 / 5.
(b) When a whole is divided into six equal parts, each part is called one-sixth.
It is written as 1 / 6.
(c) When a whole is divided into seven equal parts, each part is called one-seventh. It is written as (1 / 7).
In a similar way, you have one-eighth (1 / 8), one-ninth (1 / 9), one-tenth (1 / 10), one-eleventh (1 / 11) and so on.

Numerals such as 1 / 2, 1 / 3, 1 / 4, 1 / 5, etc, ... are called fractions.
Numbers named by the fractions are called fractional numbers.

### More than one out of many Equal Parts

(a) In a birthday party, Aastha’s mother cut a cake into three equal parts and wanted to give one piece to Aastha. But she insisted on taking two pieces. So, Aastha got 2 out of 3 equal parts. You can express it as two-thirds or 2 / 3.
(b) Bunty had a sandwich which he divided into four equal pieces as shown alongside. He ate 3 pieces out of the 4 pieces. We say, he ate three-fourths or 3 / 4 of the sandwich.
(c) The following pictures show other fractions. These will help you to understand clearly the meaning of given fractions.

## Fraction of a Group or a Collection

Fractions can also be used to name parts of a group or a collection.
Study the following examples.

1. 2 out of 3 balloons are green. Two-thirds of the balloons are green. The fraction for green balloons is 2 / 3.
Here,
2. One out of five apples are red.
One-fifth of the apples are red. The fraction of red apples is 1 / 5.
3. 3 out of 4 animals are rabbits.
Three-fourths of the animals are rabbits. The fraction of rabbits is 3 / 4.

### Numerator and Denominator

In the fraction 5 / 7, 5 is called the numerator and 7 is called the denominator.

## A Fraction Represents a Division Numeral

Look at the following pictures.
The division numeral, 1 ÷ 5 indicates that out of 5 equal parts, 1 part is shaded.
The division numeral, 3 ÷  4 indicates that 3 oranges out of 4 oranges are taken.
The fractions 1 / 5 and 3 / 4 also express these facts respectively.
Therefore, 1 ÷ 5 = 1 / 5 and 3 ÷ 4 = 3 / 4.

### Using Division to find Fractional Part of a Whole

1. Lakshya had 8 strawberries. He ate one-half of them. How many did he eat?
To find the number of strawberries Lakshya ate, divide the strawberries, into 2 equal parts and count the number in one of these parts.
We have, 1 / 2 or 8 = 4
So, Lakshya ate 4 strawberries.
2. Ritu had 9 balls. She gave 1 / 3 of them to her friend. How many balls did she give away?
To find the number of balls Ritu gave to her friend, divide the balls into 3 equal groups and count the number in one of these groups.
We have: 1 / 3 of 9 = 3.
So, Ritu gave 3 balls to her friend.
If Ritu gave two-thirds of balls to her brother, then you need to count the balls in two groups. Two groups contain 6 balls,
∴ 2 / 3 of 9 = 6.Similarly, to find 1 / 2 of 6 pencils, you divide the 6 pencils into 2 groups and count the number of pencils in 1 group, which is 3 pencils.
∴ 1 / 2 of 6 = 3.
To find 2 / 3 of 6 pencils, you count the number of pencils in 2 groups out of 3 groups. This is four pencils.
∴ 2 / 3 of 6 = 4.
You can also find 2 / 3 of 9 as shown below.
2 / 3 of 9 = 2 × (9 ÷ 3) =  2 × 3 = 6
You can also write 2 / 3 of 9 as under:
2 / 3 of  9 = (2 × 9) ÷ 3 = 18 ÷ 3 = 6

### Problems Based on Real Life Situations

Example 1: Ria had 14 crayons in a packet. She gave one-half to her friend. How many crayons did she give to her friend?

One-half of

Thus, Ria gave 7 crayons to her friend.

## Fraction on the Number Line

As numbers are represented on a number line, fractions can also be shown on a number line.

• Each fraction number line starts at 0 and ends in 1.
• The denominator of the fraction decides into how many equal parts we divide the whole number line from 0 to 1.
• The numerator of the fraction decides how many of these equal parts we take.

For example:
To represent 1 / 2, we divide the number line into two equal parts and take one part out of those.
To represent 2 / 3, we divide the number line into three equal parts and take two parts out of those.
To represent 3 / 4, we divide the number line into four equal parts and take three parts out of those.
Now, look at the number line and write the fractions represented by the points A and B.
A represents 2 / 5 and B represents 4 / 5 on the number line.

The document Fractions Class 3 Notes Maths is a part of the Class 3 Course Mathematics Olympiad for Class 3.
All you need of Class 3 at this link: Class 3

## Mathematics Olympiad for Class 3

42 videos|34 docs|53 tests

## FAQs on Fractions Class 3 Notes Maths

 1. What is a fraction?
A fraction is a numerical representation of a division operation. It represents a part of a whole or a group. It consists of a numerator and a denominator, where the numerator represents the number of parts we have and the denominator represents the total number of equal parts in the whole or group.
 2. How do you read and write fractions?
To read a fraction, we say the numerator and then the denominator. For example, 3/4 is read as "three-fourths" or "three over four." To write a fraction, we write the numerator above a horizontal line called a fraction bar, and the denominator below the fraction bar. For example, 3/4 is written as 3/4.
 3. What is the meaning of the numerator and denominator in a fraction?
The numerator in a fraction represents the number of parts we have or are considering. It tells us how many parts we have out of the total number of equal parts in the whole or group. The denominator in a fraction represents the total number of equal parts in the whole or group. It tells us into how many equal parts the whole or group is divided.
 4. How do you compare fractions?
To compare fractions, we can use the following methods: - If the denominators are the same, we compare the numerators. The fraction with the greater numerator is greater. - If the denominators are different, we can convert the fractions to equivalent fractions with the same denominator. Then, we compare the numerators.
 5. Can fractions be added or subtracted?
Yes, fractions can be added or subtracted. To add or subtract fractions, we need to have the same denominator. If the fractions have different denominators, we can find a common denominator and then perform the addition or subtraction.

## Mathematics Olympiad for Class 3

42 videos|34 docs|53 tests

### Up next

 Explore Courses for Class 3 exam

### Top Courses for Class 3

Signup to see your scores go up within 7 days! Learn & Practice with 1000+ FREE Notes, Videos & Tests.
10M+ students study on EduRev
Related Searches

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

,

;