Table of contents  
Understanding Fractions:  
More than Four equal Part  
Fraction of a Group or a Collection  
A Fraction Represents a Division Numeral  
Fraction on the Number Line 
Imagine you have a delicious apple. Now, if you eat just half of it, that's like a special way of talking about it called a "fraction." And if you eat only a quarter of the apple, that's another kind of fraction. So, fractions help us describe and share things when we're talking about parts of a whole, like your tasty apple!
Fractions are a way of naming and talking about equal parts of something, like a piece of cake or a group of toys.
Now we know that 1 /4 is a fraction where 1 is the numerator and 4 is the denominator and the whole ^{1}/_{4} is called a fraction.
A fraction consists of two parts:
Thus, a number is written above and a below the horizontal line and then the arrangement is called as fraction.
Let's explore further,
Two Equal Parts
(a) Anuja buys a chocolate bar. She divides it into two equal parts so that she can give one part each to her two children.
(b) Look at the figures given alongside.
Each shape is divided into 2 equal parts.
One part is shaded in each shape. Each shaded part represents 1 / 2.
Three Equal Parts
(a) Rajat and Seema went to a restaurant to eat pizza with their mother.
The mother ordered one pizza. She told them to share it equally. They divided it into 3 equal parts. Three equal parts are called thirds.
Each one of the equal parts is onethird of the whole. It is written as 1 / 3.
(b) In the picture given alongside, each shape is divided into 3 equal parts. One part out of the 3 parts is shaded. Each shaded part of the shape is onethird of the whole.
Four Equal Parts
(a) Rajat’s mother cut the pizza into four equal parts for Rajat and his three friends.
When we divide a whole into 4 equal parts we say that we divide it in fourths. Each part is onefourth or onequarter of the whole. This is also written as 1 / 4.
(b) Each shape, given alongside, is divided into 4 equal parts.
One out of the 4 equal parts is shaded. Each shaded part of the shape is onefourth of the whole.
Each equal part is called onefourth.
Onefourth is also called as onequarter.
Onefourth means 1 part out of 4 equal parts.
Just as you say onehalf, onethird, onefourth and write them as 1 / 2, 1 / 3 and 1 / 4 respectively, similarly, you can name other equal parts as under:
(a) When a whole is divided into five equal parts, each part is called onefifth.
It is written as 1 / 5.
(b) When a whole is divided into six equal parts, each part is called onesixth.
It is written as 1 / 6.
(c) When a whole is divided into seven equal parts, each part is called oneseventh. It is written as (1 / 7).
In a similar way, you have oneeighth (1 / 8), oneninth (1 / 9), onetenth (1 / 10), oneeleventh (1 / 11) and so on.
Numerals such as 1 / 2, 1 / 3, 1 / 4, 1 / 5, etc, ... are called fractions.
Numbers named by the fractions are called fractional numbers.
(a) In a birthday party, Aastha’s mother cut a cake into three equal parts and wanted to give one piece to Aastha. But she insisted on taking two pieces. So, Aastha got 2 out of 3 equal parts. You can express it as twothirds or 2 / 3.
(b) Bunty had a sandwich which he divided into four equal pieces as shown alongside. He ate 3 pieces out of the 4 pieces. We say, he ate threefourths or 3 / 4 of the sandwich.
(c) The following pictures show other fractions. These will help you to understand clearly the meaning of given fractions.
Fractions can also be used to name parts of a group or a collection.
Study the following examples.
In the fraction 5 / 7, 5 is called the numerator and 7 is called the denominator.
Look at the following pictures.
The division numeral, 1 ÷ 5 indicates that out of 5 equal parts, 1 part is shaded.
The division numeral, 3 ÷ 4 indicates that 3 oranges out of 4 oranges are taken.
The fractions 1 / 5 and 3 / 4 also express these facts respectively.
Therefore, 1 ÷ 5 = 1 / 5 and 3 ÷ 4 = 3 / 4.
Example 1: Ria had 14 crayons in a packet. She gave onehalf to her friend. How many crayons did she give to her friend?
Onehalf of
Thus, Ria gave 7 crayons to her friend.
As numbers are represented on a number line, fractions can also be shown on a number line.
For example:
To represent 1 / 2, we divide the number line into two equal parts and take one part out of those.
To represent 2 / 3, we divide the number line into three equal parts and take two parts out of those.
To represent 3 / 4, we divide the number line into four equal parts and take three parts out of those.
Now, look at the number line and write the fractions represented by the points A and B.
A represents 2 / 5 and B represents 4 / 5 on the number line.
42 videos34 docs53 tests

1. What is a fraction? 
2. How do you read and write fractions? 
3. What is the meaning of the numerator and denominator in a fraction? 
4. How do you compare fractions? 
5. Can fractions be added or subtracted? 

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