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New Kings & Kingdoms Summary Class 7 History

The Emergence of New Dynasties

  • By the seventh century there were big landlords or warrior chiefs in different regions of the subcontinent.

The Rashtrakutas

  • The Rashtrakutas in the Deccan were subordinates to the Chalukyas of Karnataka.
  • During the mid-eighth century, a Rashtrakuta chief called Dantidurga overthrew his Chalukya overlord.
  • Gurjara-Pratihara Harichandra and Kadamba Mayurasharman were Brahmanas successfully established kingdoms in Karnataka and Rajasthan respectively.

Administration in the Kingdoms


  • Many of these new kings often shared power with their samantas as well as with associations of peasants, traders and Brahmanas.
  • Revenue in the form of land rent was collected from peasants, cattle-keepers and artisans and Traders.

Prashastis and Land Grants

• Prashastis depicted the image that the kings wished to project about themselves. 

• These were composed by learned Brahmanas who were rewarded by grants of land.

Warfare for Wealth

Tripartite Struggle

  • Kanauj, a city in the Ganga valley was an important city of the time. 
  • For centuries, rulers  belonging to the Gurjara-Pratihara, Rashtrakuta and Pala dynasties fought for control over  Kanauj, called as the “tripartite struggle”.

Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni

  • Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni from Afghanistan (ruled from 997 to 1030) raided the subcontinent almost every year and targeted wealthy temples, including Somnath in Gujarat.

Chahamanas or the Chauhans

  • The Chahamanas or the Chauhans, who ruled around Delhi and Ajmer, attempted to expand  their control to the west and the east. 
  • They were opposed by the Chalukyas of Gujarat and the Gahadavalas of western Uttar Pradesh.

The Cholas

  • Cholas were subordinates of the Pallava kings of Kanchipuram. 
  • Vijayalaya, of the Chola family from Uraiyur, captured the Kaveri delta from Muttaraiyar in the middle of the ninth century.
  • The successors of Vijayalaya conquered neighbouring regions such as the Pandyan and the Pallava territories to the south and north.
  • The most powerful Chola ruler was Rajaraja I.

Splendid Temples and Bronze Sculpture

  • The big temples of Thanjavur and Gangaikonda-cholapuram, built by Rajaraja and Rajendra, are sculptural and architectural marvels.

Agriculture and Irrigation

  • The river Kaveri branches off into several small channels before draining into the Bay of Bengal.  Water from these channels provides the necessary moisture for agriculture, particularly the cultivation of rice.
  • Forests were cleared and land was levelled for agriculture in many areas.
  • Wells were dug and tanks were constructed to collect rainwater 

The Administration of the Empire

  • Settlements of peasants, called ur, became prosperous with the spread of irrigation agriculture.
  • Rich landowners handled important offices of the state at the centre.
  • Grants of land to Brahmanas were looked after by an assembly or sabha of prominent Brahmana landholders.
The document New Kings & Kingdoms Summary Class 7 History is a part of the Class 7 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 7.
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FAQs on New Kings & Kingdoms Summary Class 7 History

1. What were the factors that led to the emergence of new dynasties in ancient India?
Ans. The emergence of new dynasties in ancient India can be attributed to several factors. Firstly, the decline of the Gupta Empire created a power vacuum, leading to the rise of regional kingdoms. Secondly, the expansion of trade routes and the growth of commerce provided economic opportunities for ambitious rulers to establish their own kingdoms. Additionally, the weakening of central authority allowed local chieftains to assert their independence and establish their dynasties. Lastly, the invasions by foreign powers, such as the Hunas and the Arabs, led to the establishment of new dynasties in different parts of the subcontinent.
2. How did the decline of the Gupta Empire contribute to the emergence of new dynasties?
Ans. The decline of the Gupta Empire played a significant role in the emergence of new dynasties in ancient India. With the decline of Gupta power, the central authority weakened, creating a power vacuum. Regional governors and local chieftains took advantage of this situation to assert their independence and establish their own dynasties. This led to the fragmentation of the empire and the rise of several smaller kingdoms throughout the subcontinent.
3. What role did trade and commerce play in the emergence of new dynasties in ancient India?
Ans. Trade and commerce played a crucial role in the emergence of new dynasties in ancient India. The expansion of trade routes, both land and maritime, facilitated the exchange of goods and ideas across different regions. This economic growth provided opportunities for ambitious rulers to build their wealth and establish their own kingdoms. The control of trade routes also allowed these dynasties to accumulate wealth through taxation and trade monopolies, further strengthening their position and influence.
4. How did the weakening of central authority contribute to the emergence of new dynasties?
Ans. The weakening of central authority in ancient India contributed to the emergence of new dynasties. As the Gupta Empire declined, the central administration became ineffective in maintaining control over the vast territory. This created space for regional governors and local chieftains to assert their independence and establish their own dynasties. The weakened central authority also made it difficult to enforce law and order, leading to the fragmentation of the empire and the rise of smaller kingdoms.
5. Did external invasions play a role in the emergence of new dynasties in ancient India?
Ans. Yes, external invasions played a significant role in the emergence of new dynasties in ancient India. Invasions by foreign powers, such as the Hunas and the Arabs, disrupted the existing political order and led to the establishment of new dynasties in different parts of the subcontinent. These invasions weakened the existing ruling powers and created opportunities for ambitious local rulers to rise to power. The new dynasties that emerged as a result of these invasions often incorporated elements of the invading cultures into their own, leading to cultural syncretism.
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