UPSC Exam  >  UPSC Notes  >  CSAT Preparation  >  Reading Comprehension (71-80)

Reading Comprehension (71-80) | CSAT Preparation - UPSC PDF Download

Passage - 1

Constitutional Government is a type of governance that is characterized by the fact that “Government” operates within a set of legal and institutional constraints that both limits its power and protects the individual liberty of the citizen of a state. Central elements of constitutional government therefore, are the set of rules or “basic laws” that establish the duties, power and functions of government (i.e., institutional autonomy) and define the relationship between state and individual (individual autonomy). This complex of institutional relations is a type of governance, because it is fundamentally different from those states where the “Rule of Law” is either absent (or suspended), or is defined on the basics of other principles than “liberalism” (i.e. commitment to the principles of individual liberty, freedom to associate, tolerating other person’s belief and respecting minorities and consenting equal rights to all citizens within the state). Hence, constitutional government is based on a “contract” between the “Principal” and the “Public” at large and can be considered as an authoritative guideline concerning the “Room to Maneuver” of government.

The origin and development of “constitutionalism” can be traced to its roots in the 18th century as the enlightenment and the Bourgeois revolutions in the US and Europe. This overview will show that at present the meaning of constitutional government appears to overlap strongly with the idea of the “rule of law” and also has influenced the chosen organization (its forms like, republicanism, federalism, parliamentary) of the state and the values (independence, social and economic objectives i.e. public welfare, human rights, etc.) of a society. Thus, the constitutional government is both a principle for organizing public life and a framework for assessing the sustainability of a political system. It can be considered as one of the building blocks for not only organizing a society, but also as being crucial of understanding how and what extent national government contributes to sustainable condition of society.

Constitutional government enables:

  1. Establishes the relations between institutions and individuals.
  2. With this, the value involved in a society can be maintained.
  3. It acts as a fundamental principle of governing the state.

Question for Reading Comprehension (71-80)
Try yourself:Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
View Solution

Passage - 2

Authors William Strauss and Neil Howe are known for their theories about cycles of generations in American history. They refer to each cycle of four generations as a constellation, and they posit that each constellational era corresponds to “recurring type of historical events” and moods. They state that adjacent generations do not live similar lives and that each generation ages as a singular cohort as time moves forward. According to Strauss and Howe, each generation is comprised of people who possess (1) common age (2) common beliefs and (3) perceived membership in the same generation. A generation is approximately 22 years in length. Since a lifetime may reach 80-90 years members of 4 generations are alive at one time. The four generational archetypes identified by Strauss are Idealist, Reactive, Civic and Adaptive.

Idealist are “increasingly indulged youth after a secular crisis”, who cultivate principle rather than pragmatism in midlife, and emerge as “visionary elders”. “Reactive grow up” Under protected and criticized youths during a spiritual awakening”, mature into risk taking adults, mellow into pragmatic midlife leaders during a secular crisis”, and become reclusive elders. Civics grow up “increasingly protected youth after a spiritual awakening” become “a heroic and achieving cadre of young adults”, build institutions as midlife and “emerges as busy midlifers, attacked by the next spiritual awakening”. Adaptive grow up as “overprotected and suffocated youths during a secular crisis,” become “risk-averse, conformist rising adults”, mature into “indecisive arbitrator leaders during a spiritual awakening”, and become sensitive elders.

Question for Reading Comprehension (71-80)
Try yourself:What is the assumption made by Strauss and Howe?
View Solution

Passage - 3

No doubt the ‘Green Revolution’ hasled to self-sufficiency in food production but it has also brought the formidable problem of poisoning of food grain and other eatables. This is caused by excessive use of chemicals on crops and pesticide residues. It has also created havoc by exterminating the species of useful parasites and viruses which keep pests under control. Scientists are now worried about the resurgence of such formidable pests in menacing proportions which seem to undermine all that they have achieved in agriculture production.

Question for Reading Comprehension (71-80)
Try yourself:Which of the following statement is correct according to the passage?
View Solution

Passage - 4

Constitutional Government is a type of governance that is characterized by the fact that “Government” operates within a set of legal and institutional constraints that both limits its power and protects the individual liberty of the citizen of a state. Central elements of constitutional government therefore, are the set of rules or “basic laws” that establish the duties, power and functions of government (i.e., institutional autonomy) and define the relationship between state and individual (individual autonomy). This complex of institutional relations is a type of governance, because it is fundamentally different from those states where the “Rule of Law” is either absent (or suspended), or is defined on the basics of other principles than “liberalism” (i.e. commitment to the principles of individual liberty, freedom to associate, tolerating other person’s belief and respecting minorities and consenting equal rights to all citizens within the state). Hence, constitutional government is based on a “contract” between the “Principal” and the “Public” at large and can be considered as an authoritative guideline concerning the “Room to Maneuver” of government.

The origin and development of “constitutionalism” can be traced to its roots in the 18th century as the enlightenment and the Bourgeois revolutions in the US and Europe. This overview will show that at present the meaning of constitutional government appears to overlap strongly with the idea of the “rule of law” and also has influenced the chosen organization (its forms like, republicanism, federalism, parliamentary) of the state and the values (independence, social and economic objectives i.e. public welfare, human rights, etc.) of a society. Thus, the constitutional government is both a principle for organizing public life and a framework for assessing the sustainability of a political system. It can be considered as one of the building blocks for not only organizing a society, but also as being crucial of understanding how and what extent national government contributes to sustainable condition of society.

Which of the following can be said to associate with constitutional government?

  1. Its present nature has its genesis in the enlightenment.
  2. Various political ideologies which organize the state, inspired by it.

Question for Reading Comprehension (71-80)
Try yourself:Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
View Solution

Passage - 5

Authors William Strauss and Neil Howe are known for their theories about cycles of generations in American history. They refer to each cycle of four generations as a constellation, and they posit that each constellational era corresponds to “recurring type of historical events” and moods. They state that adjacent generations do not live similar lives and that each generation ages as a singular cohort as time moves forward. According to Strauss and Howe, each generation is comprised of people who possess (1) common age (2) common beliefs and (3) perceived membership in the same generation. A generation is approximately 22 years in length. Since a lifetime may reach 80-90 years members of 4 generations are alive at one time. The four generational archetypes identified by Strauss are Idealist, Reactive, Civic and Adaptive.

Idealist are “increasingly indulged youth after a secular crisis”, who cultivate principle rather than pragmatism in midlife, and emerge as “visionary elders”. “Reactive grow up” Under protected and criticized youths during a spiritual awakening”, mature into risk taking adults, mellow into pragmatic midlife leaders during a secular crisis”, and become reclusive elders. Civics grow up “increasingly protected youth after a spiritual awakening” become “a heroic and achieving cadre of young adults”, build institutions as midlife and “emerges as busy midlifers, attacked by the next spiritual awakening”. Adaptive grow up as “overprotected and suffocated youths during a secular crisis,” become “risk-averse, conformist rising adults”, mature into “indecisive arbitrator leaders during a spiritual awakening”, and become sensitive elders.

Question for Reading Comprehension (71-80)
Try yourself:According to the passage which of the following statement can be inferred?
View Solution

Passage - 6

The important thing in life is not what you have been but what you are reaching for and becoming. At my age, when I can see the end of the road more clearly than most, I can sit back and recollect in transquility the varying vicissitudes of my life and what it has taught me. When I look back, I find that the great and glorious hours of my life were those when I gave a helping hand to others without expecting anything in return and not when I struggled and succeeded to gain my own ends. And I can well imagine and appreciate that in this world those alone live who live for others. I have no regrets for the Past. Life has been kind to me. My only regret is that I received more from life than I gave.

Question for Reading Comprehension (71-80)
Try yourself:What according to the author, were the most fulfilling moments of his life?
View Solution

Passage - 7

The recent change to all volunteer armed forces in the United states will eventually produce a gradual increase in the proportion of women in the armed forces and in the variety of women’s assignment, but probably not the dramatic gains for women that might have been expected. This is so even though the armed forces operate in an ethos of institutional change oriented towards occupational equality and under the federal sanction of equal pay for equal work. The difficulty is that women are unlikely to be trained for any direct combat operations. A significant portion of the larger society remains uncomfortable as yet with extending equality in this direction. Therefore, for women in the military, the search for equality will still be based on functional equivalence, not identity or even similarity of task. Opportunities seem certain to arise. The growing emphasis on resistance is bound to offer increasing scope for women to become involved in novel types of non combat military assignments.

Question for Reading Comprehension (71-80)
Try yourself:Which of the following statement is incorrect in context of above passage?
View Solution

Passage - 8

Drought is basically a distress situation caused by the failure of rainfall. This failure may be due to insufficient rain or due to wide gap between two or more spells of rain. Droughts are of three types. Meteorological drought is a situation when the actual rainfall is significantly less than the climatologically expected rainfall over a wide area. Here the rains do not arrive on time and are inadequate. Such droughts are mainly concentrated in the areas falling between arid and semi-arid zones of the country and are characterized by high variability of rainfall.

Hydrological droughts are associated with the drying up of surface water such as rivers, streams, lakes and reservoirs and fall in groundwater levels. Such droughts are augmented by deforestation, mining, road construction, overgrazing and withdrawal of excessive ground water. All these factors contribute to hydrological instability leading to droughts. Agricultural droughts or soil droughts occur when soil lose their effective moisture conserving capacity. This prevents healthy crop growth. Such droughts may occur even when meteorological droughts do not occur and vice versa. Under extreme conditions of such a drought, no Plant exists and such a condition is called desertification

Although, all these three forms of drought occur independently of each other, but the occurrence of meteorological drought is the basic reason of hydrological droughts. Prolonged meteorological drought results into hydrological drought, and may, thereafter, lead to agricultural drought. This transition is a very slow process.

Consider the following statements:

  1. In dry area, chances of receiving high or low rainfall are not high.
  2. Hydrological droughts begin with illicit felling of trees and overgrazing only.

Question for Reading Comprehension (71-80)
Try yourself:Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
View Solution

Passage - 9

The recent change to all volunteer armed forces in the United states will eventually produce a gradual increase in the proportion of women in the armed forces and in the variety of women’s assignment, but probably not the dramatic gains for women that might have been expected. This is so even though the armed forces operate in an ethos of institutional change oriented towards occupational equality and under the federal sanction of equal pay for equal work. The difficulty is that women are unlikely to be trained for any direct combat operations. A significant portion of the larger society remains uncomfortable as yet with extending equality in this direction. Therefore, for women in the military, the search for equality will still be based on functional equivalence, not identity or even similarity of task. Opportunities seem certain to arise. The growing emphasis on resistance is bound to offer increasing scope for women to become involved in novel types of non combat military assignments. 

Question for Reading Comprehension (71-80)
Try yourself:It can be inferred from the passage that:
View Solution

Passage - 10

Drought is basically a distress situation caused by the failure of rainfall. This failure may be due to insufficient rain or due to wide gap between two or more spells of rain. Droughts are of three types. Meteorological drought is a situation when the actual rainfall is significantly less than the climatologically expected rainfall over a wide area. Here the rains do not arrive on time and are inadequate. Such droughts are mainly concentrated in the areas falling between arid and semi-arid zones of the country and are characterized by high variability of rainfall.

Hydrological droughts are associated with the drying up of surface water such as rivers, streams, lakes and reservoirs and fall in groundwater levels. Such droughts are augmented by deforestation, mining, road construction, overgrazing and withdrawal of excessive ground water. All these factors contribute to hydrological instability leading to droughts. Agricultural droughts or soil droughts occur when soil lose their effective moisture conserving capacity. This prevents healthy crop growth. Such droughts may occur even when meteorological droughts do not occur and vice versa. Under extreme conditions of such a drought, no Plant exists and such a condition is called desertification

Although, all these three forms of drought occur independently of each other, but the occurrence of meteorological drought is the basic reason of hydrological droughts. Prolonged meteorological drought results into hydrological drought, and may, thereafter, lead to agricultural drought. This transition is a very slow process.

Consider the following statements:

  1. Meteorological drought is the cause of every drought.
  2. Hydrological drought is always an outcome of the human factors.

Question for Reading Comprehension (71-80)
Try yourself:Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
View Solution

The document Reading Comprehension (71-80) | CSAT Preparation - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course CSAT Preparation.
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC
214 videos|139 docs|151 tests

Up next

FAQs on Reading Comprehension (71-80) - CSAT Preparation - UPSC

1. What is the UPSC exam and why is it important?
Ans. The UPSC exam, also known as the Union Public Service Commission exam, is a prestigious examination conducted in India to recruit candidates for various civil services positions in the government. It is considered important because it serves as a gateway to prestigious careers in the administrative, diplomatic, and other government sectors.
2. How can I apply for the UPSC exam?
Ans. To apply for the UPSC exam, candidates need to visit the official website of the Union Public Service Commission. They can find the application form under the "Examination" section. After filling out the necessary details and paying the application fee, they need to submit the form online before the specified deadline.
3. What are the eligibility criteria for the UPSC exam?
Ans. The eligibility criteria for the UPSC exam are as follows: - Nationality: The candidate must be a citizen of India. - Age limit: The candidate must be between 21 and 32 years old, with certain relaxations for reserved categories. - Educational qualification: The candidate must hold a bachelor's degree from a recognized university.
4. What is the exam pattern for the UPSC exam?
Ans. The UPSC exam consists of three stages: the Preliminary examination, the Main examination, and the Personality Test (interview). The Preliminary examination consists of two objective-type papers, while the Main examination consists of nine papers of conventional essay type. The Personality Test evaluates the candidate's personality, communication skills, and overall suitability for a career in the civil services.
5. How can I prepare for the UPSC exam effectively?
Ans. Effective preparation for the UPSC exam requires a well-rounded approach, including comprehensive study of the syllabus, regular practice of previous year question papers, and staying updated with current affairs. It is also advisable to join coaching institutes or online study platforms that provide guidance and mock tests. Additionally, developing good time management skills and maintaining a disciplined study routine can greatly enhance the preparation process.
214 videos|139 docs|151 tests
Download as PDF

Up next

Explore Courses for UPSC exam

How to Prepare for UPSC

Read our guide to prepare for UPSC which is created by Toppers & the best Teachers
Signup for Free!
Signup to see your scores go up within 7 days! Learn & Practice with 1000+ FREE Notes, Videos & Tests.
10M+ students study on EduRev
Related Searches

MCQs

,

Free

,

Extra Questions

,

Reading Comprehension (71-80) | CSAT Preparation - UPSC

,

pdf

,

video lectures

,

mock tests for examination

,

Reading Comprehension (71-80) | CSAT Preparation - UPSC

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Objective type Questions

,

study material

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Reading Comprehension (71-80) | CSAT Preparation - UPSC

,

Sample Paper

,

past year papers

,

Exam

,

ppt

,

Semester Notes

,

Important questions

,

Summary

,

practice quizzes

,

Viva Questions

;