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Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Question Answers - Democratic Politics - II

Short Answer Type Questions (3 Marks)

Q1: “There is urgent need to combat communalism”. Explain. [CBSE 2014]
Ans: Communal politics is based on the idea that religion is the principal basis of social community.
(i) The followers of a particular religion must belong to one community. Their fundamental interests are the same. Any difference that they may have is irrelevant or trivial for community life. It also follows that people who follow different religions cannot belong to the same social community.
(ii) A communal mind often leads to a quest for political dominance of one’s own religious community. For those belonging to majority community, this takes the form of majoritarian dominance. For those belonging to the minority community, it can take the form of a desire to form a separate political unit.
(iii) Sometimes communalism takes its most ugly form of communal violence, riots and massacre. For example, communal riots in UP Bihar, Gujarat, etc.
(iv) Communalism should not be seen as a threat to some people in India. It threatens the very idea of India. That is why communalism needs to be combated.

Q2: “In India women’s political representation is very low”. Justify.
Or
Explain the need for more representation for women as elected representatives. How can it be achieved?
Or
What is the status of women representation in India’s legislative bodies? [CBSE 2013]
Ans:
(i) The percentage of elected women members in Lok Sabha has never reached even 10 percent of its total strength.
(ii) The share of women in the State Assemblies is less than 5 percent. In this respect, India is among the bottom group of nations in the world. India is behind the averages for several developing countries of Africa and Latin America.
(iii) In the government, Cabinets are largely all male even when a women becomes the Chief Minister or the Prime Minister.
(iv) There is urgent need to increase women representation in the legislature to empower women.

Q3: How has the principle of Universal Adult Franchise helped in combating casteism?
Ans: 
(i) Under the universal adult franchise all the citizens of India who are at least 18 years of age are a voter to elect the representatives to the Parliament and the State Legislatures. They possesses this right without any discrimination of caste, creed, colour, sex, religion or belief.
(ii) Universal adult franchise and the principle of one-person-one-vote has compelled political leaders to gear up to the task of mobilising and securing political support.
(iii). It also brought new consciousness among the people of castes that were hitherto treated as inferior and low.

Q4: What were Gandhiji’s views regarding religion and politics? Explain.
Ans: 
Gandhiji used to say that religion can never be separated from politics. What he meant by religion was not any particular religion like Hinduism or Islam but moral values that form the basis of all religions. He believed that politics must be guided by ethics drawn from religions.

Q5: ‘Political mobilisation on religious lines is a frequent form of communalism.’ Explain.
Ans:
Political mobilisation on communal lines involves the use of sacred symbols, religious leaders, emotional appeal and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in the political arena. In electoral politics, this often involves special appeal to the interests or emotions of voters of one religion in preference to others.

Q6: Besides caste, which other factors do in matter in electoral politics ?
Ans:
(i) Voting on the basis of community : Political leaders pursue the voters to cast their vote on the basis of communal lines.
(ii) Political Mobilization on Religious lines : Political mobilization on religious lines is another frequent form of communalism. This involves the use of sacred symbols, religious leaders, emotional appeal and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in the political arena. In electoral politics this often involves special appeal to the interests or emotions of voters of one religion in preference to others.
(iii) Performance of the government : Along with caste and community people also check the performance of the political party or the agenda of the party.

Q7: Write the appropriate term:
(i) A person, who says that religion is the principal basis of community.
(ii) A person, who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and men.
(iii) A person who does not discriminate other on the basis of religious beliefs.
Ans: 
(i) Communalist (ii) Feminist (iii) Secularist

Long Answer Type Questions (5 Marks)
Q11: Name the movements which agitate for women’s rights. How have these movements helped in improving women’s conditions?
Ans: 
Feminist Movements.
(i) Political expression of gender division and political mobilisation on this question helped to improve the women’s role in public life.
(ii) Now, women are working in occupations such as scientists, doctors, engineers, lawyers, managers, and college and university teachers which were earlier not considered suitable for women.
(iii) In some parts of the world, for example, (») By reserving some seats in the Lok Sabha in the Scandinavian countries such as Sweden, Norway and Finland, the participation of women in public life is very high.

Q12: Mention any four steps which can be undertaken to improve the women’s representation in politics.
Or
Suggest any three steps to improve the women’s participation in politics.
Ans: 
(i) To make it legally binding to have a fair proportion of women in the elected bodies
(ii) By reserving some seats in the Lok Sabha and the State Assemblies for women.
(iii) Political parties should also give due representation to women members.
(iv) By raising the literacy rate.

Q13: What is casteism? How is casteism in India different as compared to other societies?
Or
Describe any five features of the caste system prevailing in India.
Ans:
(i) Organisation of people into social groups for the purpose of marriage, work and diet is known as the caste system.
(ii) The social structure of India is based upon the caste system. All societies have some kind of social inequality and some form of division of labour, but the Indian caste system is an extreme form of division of labour based on birth.
(iii) Although in most societies, occupations are passed on from one generation to another, but in India, it is different from other societies as in this system hereditary occupational division was sanctioned by rituals.
(iv) The Indian caste system was very rigid. Members of the same caste group were supposed to form a social community that practised the same or similar occupation, married within the caste group, and did not eat with members from other caste groups.
(v) Indian caste system continues to be closely linked to economic status.

Q14: Mention any positive role of caste in politics.
Or
Describe the positive and negative aspects of relationship between caste and politics.
Ans:
(i) In some situations, expression of caste differences in politics gives many disadvantaged communities the space to demand their share of power.
(ii) In this sense, caste politics has helped people from the Dalits and the OBC castes to gain better access to decision making.

Q15: What is casteism? How is casteism in India different as compared to other societies?
Or
Describe any five features of the caste system prevailing in India.
Ans:
(i) Organisation of people into social groups for the purpose of marriage, work and diet is known as the caste system.
(ii) The social structure of India is based upon the caste system. All societies have some kind of social inequality and some form of division of labour, but the Indian caste system is an extreme form of division of labour based on birth.
(iii) Although in most societies, occupations are passed on from one generation to another, but in India, it is different from other societies as in this system hereditary occupational division was sanctioned by rituals.
(iv) The Indian caste system was very rigid. Members of the same caste group were supposed to form a social community that practised the same or similar occupation, married within the caste grouf), and did not eat with members from other caste groups.
(v) Indian caste system continues to be closely linked to economic status.

Q16: Mention any positive role of caste in politics.
Or
Describe the positive and negative aspects of relationship between caste and politics.
Ans:
(i) In some situations, expression of caste differences in politics gives many disadvantaged communities the space to demand their share of power.
(ii) In this sense, caste politics has helped people from the Dalits and the OBC castes to gain better access to decision making.
(iii) Several political and non-political organisations have been demanding and agitating for the end of discrimination against particular castes, for more dignity and more access to land, resources and opportunities.
Negative :
(i) It disrupts social harmony.
(ii) It can divert attention from other pressing issues like poverty, corruption, etc.

Q17: Why is the idea of communal politics fundamentally flawed?
Ans:
Most of these beliefs are fundamentally not true. People of one religion do not have the same interests and aspirations in most of the contexts. Every individual has his/her own choices, roles, positions and identities. There are many voices inside every community. All these voices have a right to be heard. Therefore, any attempt to bring all followers of one religion together in contexts other than religion is bound to suppress many voices within that community.

Q18: What are Feminist Movements? What were their major demands ?
Or
What was the Feminist Movement ? Explain the political demands of the Feminist Movement in India.
Ans:
These are the movements which are organised by various women organisations to create equality for women in personal and family life.
(i) These feminist movements demand equal rights for women in all spheres of life.
(ii) There were agitations in different countries for the extension of voting rights to women.
(iii) The agitations demanded enhancing the political and legal status of women.
(iv) The movements also demanded in improving the educational and career opportunities for the women.

Q19: Explain the relationship between religion and politics.
Or
How are religious differences expressed in politics ?
Ans:
(i) Views of Gandhiji : Gandhiji used to say that religion can never be separated from politics. What he meant by religion was not any particular religion like Hinduism or Islam, but the moral values that are there in all religions. According to him, politics must be guided by ethics drawn from all religions.
(ii) Views of Human rights groups : Human rights groups in our country have argued that most of the victims of communal riots in our country are people from religious minorities. They have demanded that the government should take special steps to protect religious minorities.
(iii) Women’s Movements : Women’s movements have argued that family laws of all religions discriminate against women. So they have demanded that the government should change these laws to make them more equitable.

Q20: How can religion influence politics? Explain.
Ans:
(i) Gandhiji believed that politics must be guided by ethics drawn from all religions.
(ii) Ideas, ideals and values drawn from different religions can and perhaps should play a role in politics.
(iii) People should be able to express in politics, their needs, interests and demands as a member of a religious community.
(iv) Those who hold political power should sometimes be able to regulate the practice of religion so as to prevent discrimination and oppression.
(v) These political acts are not wrong as long as they treat every religion equal.

The document Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 Question Answers - Democratic Politics - II is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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