Class 9 Exam  >  Class 9 Notes  >  Social Studies (SST) Class 9  >  Short & Long Question Answer: Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 Question Answers - Contemporary India - I

Q1: How is soil an important factor for vegetation?
Ans:
Soil plays a crucial role in determining the type of vegetation that can thrive in a particular area.

  • Different types of soils provide the foundation for different types of vegetation. For instance, sandy soils in deserts support cacti and thorny bushes, while marshy deltaic soils support mangroves and deltaic vegetation.
  • The composition, texture, and fertility of soil influence the types of plants that can grow. Well-drained and nutrient-rich soils support lush vegetation, while poor soils may restrict plant growth.


Q2: How do human beings influence the ecology of a region?
Ans: Human activities significantly impact the ecology of a region:

  • Human beings often utilize vegetation and wildlife resources for various purposes, leading to overexploitation and habitat destruction.
  • Deforestation, habitat destruction, and pollution caused by human activities disrupt ecosystems and lead to ecological imbalances.
  • Unregulated hunting, poaching, and pollution can lead to the extinction of plant and animal species.
  • Urbanization, industrialization, and agriculture can alter landscapes, disrupt natural habitats, and affect the overall ecological balance.


Q3: Divide the tropical deciduous forests based on the availability of water. Give a brief description of each of them.
Ans:
Moist Deciduous Forests:

  • Found in areas with rainfall between 200 and 100 cm.
  • Common in the eastern part of India, along the foothills of the Himalayas, and parts of central India.
  • Dominated by trees like teak, sal, bamboo, shisham, and sandalwood.
  • Dry Deciduous Forests:
  • Found in areas with rainfall between 100 and 70 cm.
  • Common in the rainier parts of the peninsular plateau and the plains of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
  • Trees include teak, sal, peepal, and mem.


Q4: Give a brief description of the wildlife found in the tropical evergreen and tropical deciduous forests.
Ans:

Tropical Evergreen Forests:

  • Common animals: Elephants, monkeys, lemurs, deer.
  • One-horned rhinoceroses are found in Assam and West Bengal.
  • Abundance of birds, bats, sloths, scorpions, and snails.

Tropical Deciduous Forests:

  • Common animals: Lions, tigers, pigs, deer, elephants.
  • Variety of birds, lizards, snakes, and tortoises.


Q5: Describe the vegetation and wildlife found in mangrove forests.
Ans:

Vegetation:

  • Mangrove tidal forests grow in coastal areas influenced by tides.
  • Trees like sundari, palm, coconut, keora, and agar are found in deltas of rivers like the Ganga, Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari, and Kaveri.

Wildlife:

  • Royal Bengal Tiger is a prominent animal in mangrove forests.
  • Presence of turtles, crocodiles, gharials, and snakes.
  • Mangrove ecosystems provide critical breeding and nesting habitats for various species.


Q6: Write briefly about Indian migrating birds.
Ans:

  • India hosts numerous migratory bird species during both summer and winter.
  • Over a hundred species migrate to India, either for feeding or to escape the harsh winter in their native habitats.
  • During winter, species like the Siberian Crane and flamingos migrate to India.
  • Places like the Rann of Kachchh serve as important feeding and breeding grounds for these migratory birds.


Q7: What are the characteristics of trees in deciduous forests?
Ans:

  • Deciduous forests are found in areas with rainfall between 200 cm and 70 cm, with distinct dry seasons.
  • Trees in these forests shed their leaves for about six to eight weeks during the dry summer.
  • These trees typically have wide-spreading branches, like neem and mango trees.
  • Leaves are smaller in size compared to rainforests, helping to reduce transpiration.
  • Common trees include teak, sal, shisham, and peepal, among others.


Q8: Distinguish between extinct and endangered species.
Write three main characteristics of tropical decidous forests.

Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 Question Answers - Contemporary India - I
Q9: Give five characteristics of the Montane forests.
Ans:

  • Altitude-Based Distribution: Montane forests are found in mountainous areas and are characterized by different vegetation belts based on altitude.
  • Vegetation Zones: There is a succession of vegetation belts as altitude increases, similar to the transition from tropical to tundra regions. Different types of forests and grasslands are encountered at different altitudes.
  • Wet Temperate Forests: Between 1000 and 2000 meters, wet temperate forests are prevalent. These forests feature evergreen broad-leaf trees like oaks and chestnuts.
  • Coniferous Forests: At altitudes of 1500 to 3000 meters, temperate forests with coniferous trees such as pine, deodar, and silver fir dominate. These forests are common on southern slopes of the Himalayas and high-altitude areas of southern and northeastern India.
  • Alpine Vegetation: Above 3600 meters, temperate forests and grasslands give way to Alpine vegetation. Trees like silver fir, junipers, pines, and birches are found, but they become progressively stunted as they approach the snow line. Mosses and lichens dominate at even higher altitudes.


Q10: Describe the characteristics of the tropical evergreen forests of India.
Ans:

  • Rainfall Requirement: Tropical evergreen forests thrive in areas with heavy rainfall, typically exceeding 200 cm annually. These forests experience a short dry season.
  • Tall Trees and Multilayered Structure: Trees in these forests can reach great heights, often surpassing 60 meters. The forest structure is multilayered, with various plant types, including trees, shrubs, and creepers.
  • Year-Round Greenery: Due to the absence of a definite leaf-shedding period, these forests maintain their green appearance throughout the year.
  • Rich Biodiversity: These forests are home to a wide range of flora and fauna. Commercially valuable trees like ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber, and cinchona are found here.
  • Diverse Wildlife: Animals such as elephants, monkeys, lemurs, deer, and one-horned rhinoceroses inhabit these forests. Birds, bats, sloths, scorpions, and snails are also present in abundance.


Q11: Give a brief account of the wildlife found in India.
Ans:

  • Rich Fauna: India boasts a diverse range of fauna, with around 90,000 animal species. The country is home to approximately 2,000 species of birds and 2,546 species of fish.
  • Iconic Animals: Elephants are found in the wet forests of Assam, Karnataka, and Kerala. The one-horned rhinoceros inhabits swampy lands in Assam and West Bengal.
  • Desert and Grassland Species: The Rann of Kachchh and Thar Desert are habitats for wild ass and camels respectively. Bison, nilgai, chousingha, gazelle, and various species of deer are also present. Different species of monkeys are widespread.
  • Himalayan Diversity: The Himalayas host a variety of animals, including the yak, Tibetan antelope, bharal (blue sheep), and wild sheep. High-altitude areas also support species like the shaggy-horned wild ox and Tibetan wild ass.
  • Aquatic and Avian Life: Rivers, lakes, and coastal areas are home to turtles, crocodiles, and gharials. Birds such as peacocks, pheasants, ducks, cranes, and pigeons are prominent in forests and wetlands.


Q12: In which regions are the thorny forests and scrubs found in India? Mention the characteristics of such type of vegetation.
Ans: 
Thorny forests and scrubs are found in regions with arid and semi-arid conditions, typically receiving less than 70 cm of annual rainfall. These regions include the northwestern part of India, comprising states like Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, and Haryana.
Characteristics of Thorny Forests and Scrubs:

  • Scattered Trees: Trees in these regions are widely spaced due to water scarcity. Their roots penetrate deep into the soil to access moisture.
  • Succulent Stems: Many plant species have succulent stems, which store water to survive in arid conditions.
  • Small, Thick Leaves: Leaves are often small and thick, reducing water loss through transpiration.
  • Xerophytic Adaptations: The plants have xerophytic adaptations to cope with water scarcity, such as reduced leaf surface area and thick cuticles.
  • Thorny Shrubs: Many shrubs and bushes have thorns as a defense mechanism against herbivores.
  • These vegetation types are well-adapted to the challenging climatic conditions of arid and semi-arid regions.
The document Class 9 Geography Chapter 1 Question Answers - Contemporary India - I is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
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