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Reading Comprehension (31-40) | CSAT Preparation - UPSC PDF Download

Directions: Read the following passages and answer the items that follow each passage. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.

Passage – 31
Throughout history, people and societies have adjusted to and coped with changes in climate and extremes with varying degrees of success. Climate change (drought in particular) has been at least partly responsible for the rise and fall of civilizations. Earth’s climate has been relatively stable for the past 10,000 years, and this stability has allowed for the development of our modern civilization and agriculture. Our modern life is tailored to that stable climate, not the much warmer climate of the next thousand years. As our climate changes, we will need to adapt. The faster the climate changes, the more difficult it will be. While climate change is a global issue, it is felt on a local scale. Local governments are therefore at the frontline of adaptation. Cities and local communities around the world have been focusing on solving their climate problems. They are working to build flood defences, plan for heat waves and higher temperatures, install better-draining pavements to deal with floods and stormwater, and improve water storage and use.

Q1: Based on the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:
1. In the process of climate change adaptation, the role of local governments is more important than national governments.
2. People and societies have had a minimal role in accelerating climate change across the earth.
Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans:
(d)
Sol: Assumption 1 is incorrect: The given assumption is not correct because the passage does not compare the role of local and national governments in the process of climate adaptation. It only mentions that local governments need to play a pioneering role in adapting to climate change as per the lines “Local governments are therefore at the frontline of adaptation.”
Assumption 2 is incorrect: Refer to the lines, “throughout history, people and societies have adjusted to and coped with changes in climate and extremes with varying degrees of success.”. Here, it talks about how people and societies have adjusted and coped with changes in climate. There is however, no mention of their role in accelerating climate change. Hence, this assumption is not correct.


Q2: Which of the following statements best reflects the crux of the passage?
(a) Considering the possible devastation of climate change, adaptations at the local level can help our modern lives to continue with stability.
(b) Despite being a global issue, climate change requires interventions at the local level for its reversal.
(c) For a stable modern life, people should not only focus on local adaptation but also work towards global mitigation of climate change.
(d) Unless the adaptations at the local level are done, it would be challenging to tackle climate change at the global level.
Ans: 
(a)
Sol: Option (a) is correct: The given option is based on the following lines “Our modern life is tailored to that stable climate, not the much warmer climate of the next thousand years. As our climate changes, we will need to adapt” and “Climate change (drought in particular) has been at least partly responsible for the rise and fall of civilizations”. These lines show that climate change causes devastation, but if we need to live our modern lives then we need to adapt to the changing climate. Further the lines, “Local governments are therefore at the frontline of adaptation. Cities and local communities around the world have been focusing on solving their climate problems.” emphasise the role of local-level adaptation measures.
Option (b) is incorrect: The given option is not correct because it mentions ‘reversal’ of climate change with intervention at local levels. However, the passage focuses on adaptation to and not reversal of climate change at the local level as is clear from the lines, “Local governments are therefore at the frontline of adaptation. Cities and local communities around the world have been focusing on solving their climate problems.” Hence, as per the passage, this is not the best crux of the passage.
Option (c) is incorrect: The option adds a new context of ‘climate change mitigation’, which is not a part of the passage. The passage only focuses on the adaptation to climate change as per the lines “Local governments are therefore at the frontline of adaptation. Cities and local communities around the world have been focusing on solving their climate problems.” So, this option does not reflect the crux of the passage.
Option (d) is incorrect: The given option establishes a necessary relationship between adaptation measures at the local level to solving climate change at the global level. This statement is logically correct; however, such a relationship is not reflected in the passage. The passage states that since climate change is felt on a local level, local governments are at the forefront of adaptation as per the line “The faster the climate changes, the more difficult it will be. While climate change is a global issue, it is felt on a local scale. Local governments are therefore at the frontline of adaptation.” However, to state that unless changes are done at the local level, climate change cannot be addressed at the global level would not be correct.


Passage – 32
An energy source is a necessary element of socioeconomic development. The increasing economic growth of developing nations in the last decades has caused an accelerated increase in energy consumption. This trend is anticipated to grow. A prediction of future power consumption is essential for the investigation of adequate environmental and economic policies. Likewise, an outlook on future power consumption helps to determine future investments in renewable energy. Energy supply and security have not only increased the essential issues for the development of human society but also for their global political and economic patterns. Hence, international comparisons are helpful to identify past, present, and future power consumption.

Q1: Which of the following statements best reflects the logical inference from the passage given above? 
(a) Unlike developed nations, it’s the developing nations which are more likely to be dependent on renewable energy in future. 
(b) Estimation of future energy demands will help in the smooth transition to renewable sources of energy. 
(c) In the context of energy supply across the world, the past is fossil and solar energy is the future.
(d) For fair future estimation of energy demands, understanding the history of renewable energy share in different countries across the globe is important.
Ans: (b)
Sol: Option (a) is incorrect: There is no mention of the likely relative dependence of developed and developing countries on renewable energy in future. Hence, this option is not the crux of the passage.
Option (b) is correct: The lines, “This trend is anticipated to grow. A prediction of future power consumption is essential for the investigation of adequate environmental and economic policies. Likewise, an outlook on future power consumption helps to determine future investments in renewable energy” show that estimation of future energy demands will help allocate proper resources and ensure a smooth transition towards renewable energy. Therefore, this option is the best crux of the passage.
Option (c) is incorrect: The given option is not the best crux because it states that fossils are a thing of the past and renewables like solar energy are the future, which is an extreme-sounding and unrealistic judgement. Though the passage mentions increasing investments in renewable energy in future, it does not talk about giving up on fossil fuel-based energy. Moreover, the passage does not mention anything regarding the use of fossil fuel, nor does it talk about solar energy per se. Hence, this option is beyond the scope of the passage.
Option (d) is incorrect: The given option seems to be based on the following lines “Hence, international comparisons are helpful to identify past, present, and future power consumption.” But these lines do not talk about the history of renewable energy but rather a general understanding of the trend of energy consumption over the years. Therefore, the given option is not the best crux of the passage.


Passage – 33
Many who struggle to secure the financial resources they require often, find themselves unduly swayed by the perspectives of others. They allow newspapers and gossipy neighbours to mould their beliefs and guide their thinking. Opinions, however, are abundant and often come at little cost. They can be readily imparted to anyone willing to accept them. Relying on the judgments of others to make decisions can undermine one's success in any pursuit. True success arises from the ability to sift through external influence, cultivating independent, informed decisions based on a clear understanding of one's goals.

Q1: Which of the following statements best reflects what the passage implies?
(a) If one wants to succeed in life, he/she should avoid newspapers and not listen to any person.
(b) The most important negative impact of opinions in one’s life is on the financial aspect of life.
(c) It is not the opinion or gossip which fails a person but a lack of inner conviction and well-reasoned choices.
(d) People’s opinion compromises the independent ability to make informed decisions for success.
Ans: 
(c)
Sol: Option (a) is incorrect: The given option seems to be based on the following lines “Many who struggle to secure the financial resources they require often, find themselves unduly swayed by the perspectives of others. They allow newspapers and gossipy neighbours to mould their beliefs and guide their thinking.” However, to state that for achieving success one should desist from reading newspapers and listening to any person is not correct. The author of the passage tries to say that one should not blindly rely on word of mouth or newspaper reports for financial decision-making but also apply his/her reason.
Option (b) is incorrect: The given option is not correct as the passage does not specifically mention that decisions on financial matters are ones the most influenced by popular opinion, there could be other matters as well. The impact of others’ opinions on other domains are not discussed in the passage and so a comparison cannot be made. The passage only implies that securing financial resources solely based on others' perspectives is not recommended. Refer to the line “Many who struggle to secure the financial resources they require often, find themselves unduly swayed by the perspectives of others.
Option (c) is correct: The given option best reflects what the passage implies. The lines “They can be readily imparted to anyone willing to accept them. Relying on the judgments of others to make decisions can undermine one's success in any pursuit. True success arises from the ability to sift through external influence, cultivating independent, informed decisions based on a clear understanding of one's goals”, show that it is very important to make informed decisions that are based on a clear understanding of one’s goals and by an objective and cautious consideration of external influence. Also, those decisions that are taken solely on the basis of gossip and opinions may fail. Therefore, it is important to listen to others’ opinions and gather information about the matter but the ultimate decision should emerge from one’s own subjective analysis and reasoning.
Option (d) is incorrect: The given option is not correct as the passage does not say that people’s opinion compromises one’s independent ability to reason and make informed decisions. The lines “They can be readily imparted to anyone willing to accept them. Relying on the judgments of others to make decisions can undermine one's success in any pursuit”, mean that one should not blindly trust others’ judgement and opinions on any issue. It does not mean that opinions compromise the ability to think. It only means that others’ opinions have the power to influence one’s attitude towards various matters if one lets themselves be influenced. One has the autonomy to filter external influence and take independent decisions. 


Passage – 34
When businesses prioritize transparency, accountability, and ethical practices in their operations, they create a foundation of trust with stakeholders, including suppliers and customers. This trust forms the basis for strong, mutually beneficial relationships along the supply chain. Effective governance ensures that companies maintain rigorous standards in areas like risk management, compliance with regulations, and responsible environmental and social practices. These factors are vital for supply chain stability, as they reduce the likelihood of disruptions and costly setbacks. Furthermore, good governance practices foster innovation and adaptability, enabling businesses to respond swiftly to changing market conditions and emerging challenges.

Q1: Which one of the following statements best reflects the crux of the passage?
(a) People should be the centre point of any business to succeed in today's dynamic business landscape.
(b) With the changing business landscape, it is important to adopt principles of responsible environmental and social practices in business.
(c) Trust, innovation, adaptability, and swift response to changing market conditions are the foundations of good corporate governance.
(d) Good corporate governance is not just a set of principles; it's a fundamental driver of supply chain strength and resilience in today's dynamic business landscape.
Ans:
(d)
Sol: Option (a) is incorrect: The given option is not correct because it does not reflect the essence of the passage. This option focuses on people being the centre of any business, but the crux of the passage is the importance of good corporate governance as seen in lines “Effective governance ensures that companies maintain rigorous standards in areas like risk management, compliance with regulations, and responsible environmental and social practices.” Hence, this option is not the best crux of the passage.
Option (b) is incorrect: The given option is very limited in context as it covers only one of the aspects of effective governance i.e., environmental and social practices. It is based on the lines “Effective governance ensures that companies maintain rigorous standards in areas like risk management, compliance with regulations, and responsible environmental and social practices.” However, the passage is about the importance of good corporate governance which includes an efficient supply chain as well. Hence, this option is not better as compared to option (d).
Option (c) is incorrect: The given features in the option are not the foundational concepts of good corporate governance, but reflect its outcome, as per the lines “Furthermore, good governance practices foster innovation and adaptability, enabling businesses to respond swiftly to changing market conditions and emerging challenges.” Hence, this option is not the best crux of the passage.
Option (d) is correct: The given option best captures the essence of the passage. The lines “This trust forms the basis for strong, mutually beneficial relationships along the supply chain …. These factors are vital for supply chain stability, as they reduce the likelihood of disruptions and costly setbacks. Furthermore, good governance practices foster innovation and adaptability, enabling businesses to respond swiftly to changing market conditions and emerging challenges”, show that good governance is much more than a set of principles. Hence, this option is the best crux of the passage. 


Passage – 35
In the context of GM crops, the precautionary principle demands rigorous scrutiny. While proponents argue that GM crops can enhance yields, reduce pesticide use, and alleviate food shortages, there are concerns about long term environmental impacts, potential allergenicity, and the monopolistic control of seed markets by a few biotechnology companies. The lack of emphasis on the precautionary principle in GM crop discussions can result in hasty approvals and inadequate safety assessments. Policymakers, scientists, and stakeholders must prioritize comprehensive, independent research and transparent risk assessments to ensure the responsible development and deployment of GM crops, considering the precautionary principle to safeguard both our ecosystems and human health. Ignoring this principle could have irreversible consequences for our environment and future generations.

Q1: Which of the following statements best reflects the crux of the passage?
(a) Few biotechnology companies should not be allowed to monopolize the GM crop seed market.
(b) The precautionary principle may counter the concerns related to the development of GM crops.
(c) In the future, despite the precautionary principle, GM crops could be a doubleedged sword for society.
(d) Only focusing on the precautionary principle is not enough to address the possible concerns related to GM crops. Grassroot participation of farmers is essential for this cause.
Ans: 
(b)
Sol: Option (a) is incorrect: The given option is based on the following lines “While proponents argue that GM crops can enhance yields … potential allergenicity, and the monopolistic control of seed markets by a few biotechnology companies.” These lines highlight the issues with monopoly, but this option does not reflect the central theme of the passage which is the importance of the precautionary principle in developing GM crops. Hence, this is not the best crux of the passage.
Option (b) is correct: The given option is the best crux and is reflected in the following lines “Policymakers, scientists, and stakeholders must prioritize comprehensive, independent research and transparent risk assessments to ensure the responsible development and deployment of GM crops, considering the precautionary principle to safeguard both our ecosystems and human health. Ignoring this principle could have irreversible consequences for our environment and future generations.” Hence, we can conclude that precautionary principle may counter the concerns related to development of the GM crops.
Option (c) is incorrect: The option uses the phrase, “despite the precautionary principle”. This means that even after adopting this principle, GM crops will be a double-edged sword. Now, this is an assumption which is not reflected in any line of the passage. The main theme of the passage is the need for the application of precautionary principles in GM crops as seen in the line “The lack of emphasis on the precautionary principle in GM crop discussions can result in hasty approvals and inadequate safety assessments.” Hence, this option is not the best crux of the passage.
Option (d) is incorrect: The main theme of the passage is the need for the application of precautionary principles in GM crops which is not reflected in the option. The option mentions that things other than this principle are required to address the concerns associated with GM crops, which may be correct in general but not as per the passage. The passage focuses on the lack of emphasis on this principle as seen in the line “The lack of emphasis on the precautionary principle in GM crop discussions can result in hasty approvals and inadequate safety assessments.” Moreover, “Grassroot participation of farmers” has not been discussed in the passage. Hence, this option is not the best crux of the passage.


Passage – 36
Fake news stories use technology and social media to look like proper news sites. Organisations and political groups may target you with ads that look like the news. Hackers use bots, and bits of software, to create multiple social media accounts and use those to spread misinformation. This can make a false story seem real, simply because it looks like it has been shared by so many people. Fake social media posts and accounts help make misinformation viral. Sometimes this is then reported as fact by real journalists. When it becomes the news, the line between fact and fiction becomes blurred. Fake news presents strong, often prejudiced opinions, as fact. It can also direct these opinions to those most likely to agree to reinforce them. This so-called “echo chamber” effect is made worse by algorithms, and clever bits of software, which encourage you to read material like what you are already sharing. Hackers often hack or manipulate these algorithms.

Q1: Based on the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:
1. There is an urgent need to check and control the spread of misinformation in India.
2. With increasing fake news, it is becoming difficult to trust even the real journalists.
Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans:
(d)
Sol: Assumption 1 is incorrect: The given statement is based on the following lines “Fake news presents strong, often prejudiced opinions, as fact. It can also direct these opinions to those most likely to agree to reinforce them.” However, the issues of India in this regard have not been discussed in the passage. So, it’s out of context. Also, this statement is more of an implication than an assumption. Assumption 2 is incorrect: The given statement is based on the line “Sometimes this is then reported as fact by real journalists.”. This line shows that sometimes even real journalists get misled by fake news and present them as real news. However, this does not mean that those journalists are not trustworthy. It simply means that journalists need to be stringent with the verification of news before reporting.


Q2: Which of the following statements best reflects the crux of the passage?
(a) To address the issue of fake news, technological regulations and ethics should be the first step.
(b) Social media sites are the prime source of fake news which needs to be regulated by the government.
(c) There is a lack of ethics among hackers as they manipulate information for selfish reasons.
(d) Technology is the prime enabler of the fake news menace, negatively impacting the lives of the people.
Ans: 
(d)
Sol: Option (a) is incorrect: The given statement is not based on the information in the passage. It could be a rational implication as to what should be done to check fake news. However, it is not the crux because the central theme of the passage is how technology enables the faster transmission of fake news.
Option (b) is incorrect: The given statement is based on the lines “Fake social media posts and accounts help make misinformation viral.” However, it is not the crux because the central theme of the passage is how technology enables the faster transmission of fake news and social media sites are only a part of it. So, the context covered in this option is narrow as compared to the information given in the passage. Also, the passage is rather descriptive than focussing on providing solutions. Hence, this option is not the best crux of the passage.
Option (c) is incorrect: The given option is not correct because it mentions ethics as the issue. Though this could be a rational inference but not the crux because the central theme of the passage is how technology enables the faster transmission of fake news. The context of ethics is not covered in the passage. Hence, this option is not the best crux of the passage.
Option (d) is correct: The given option best reflects the crux of the passage because it is reflected in the following lines “Fake news stories use technology and social media to look like proper news sites” and “Fake news presents strong, often prejudiced opinions, as fact. It can also direct these opinions to those most likely to agree to reinforce them.” These lines show that it is the technology which makes it easier to transmit fake news and consequently that news impacts the lives of the people negatively. Hence, this is the best crux of the passage.


Passage – 37
The population growth in urban areas is accompanied by an increased demand for water, stretching the capacity of existing supply systems. This imbalance leads to water shortages and uneven distribution. Rapid urbanisation has outpaced the development and maintenance of water supply systems, leading to shortages and unequal distribution. Insufficient financial resources and investment in water infrastructure hinder the expansion and improvement of water supply networks. This results in inadequate coverage and service disruptions. Mismanagement, leakages, and inadequate maintenance further exacerbate the problem. Ageing pipes and inadequate repair and maintenance programs result in significant water losses. Climate change-induced uncertainties, such as erratic rainfall patterns and prolonged droughts, place additional stress on urban water sources.

Q1: Which of the following is/are the most rational and logical inference/inferences that can be drawn from the passage?
1. The solution to water shortages is not limited to urban governance, it requires people’s participation.
2. Continued water shortage in urban areas could lead to the de-urbanization of our cities.
Select the correct answer from the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 only
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans:
(d)
Sol: Inference 1 is incorrect: The given statement is not a rational inference because of the mention of “people’s participation”. The passage completely focuses on the misgovernance by the urban local bodies as seen in the lines “Mismanagement, leakages, and inadequate maintenance further exacerbate the problem. Ageing pipes and inadequate repair and maintenance programs result in significant water losses.” All these issues are not people’s issues but governance issues. Hence, this option is not correct.
Inference 2 is incorrect: The given option is not correct as supporting evidence cannot be gathered from the information given in the passage. The option states an extreme consequence of continued water shortage resulting from unchecked mis-governance of water-related infrastructure. This has not been discussed in the passage. The passage focuses on the governance issues leading to water shortages in urban areas. Hence, from the information given in the passage, we cannot infer that continued water shortage in urban areas could lead to the de-urbanization of our cities.


Passage – 38
In our contemporary world, where economies are continually evolving, the social sector has emerged as a crucial avenue for generating large-scale employment opportunities. This shift towards bolstering sectors such as healthcare, education, and public infrastructure holds immense potential for several reasons. Firstly, investments in healthcare and education create a demand for skilled professionals, ranging from doctors and teachers to support staff and technicians. This not only provides jobs but also enhances the overall quality of human capital. Secondly, improved public infrastructure, like transportation and renewable energy projects, requires a considerable workforce, contributing significantly to job creation. However, increased social sector expenditure must be combined with efficient governance, accountability, and measures to combat corruption to ensure the funds are effectively utilised.

Q1: Based on the above passage, the following assumptions have been made:
1. Lack of investment is the fundamental reason for poor employment opportunities in the social sector.
2. Investment alone may not be enough for growth if the menace of corruption is not addressed.
Which of the above assumptions is/are invalid?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans:
(a)
Sol: Assumption 1 is invalid: The given assumption is not correct because the passage mentions what investments can do in the context of employment in the social sector as seen in lines “Firstly, investments in healthcare and education create a demand for skilled professionals, … This not only provides jobs but also enhances the overall quality of human capital.” We cannot say that lack of investment is the fundamental reason for poor employment. The reasons for this could be poor skills, etc. So, to assume that lack of investment is the fundamental reason for poor employment is not correct. Moreover, the passage hints towards increased investment in the social sector in the line – “However, increased social sector expenditure must be combined with efficient governance …”
Assumption 2 is valid: The given assumption is based on the lines “However, increased social sector expenditure must be combined with efficient governance, accountability, and measures to combat corruption to ensure the funds are effectively utilised.” These lines mean that though social sector investments need to increase, it must be complemented by governance reforms and measures to reduce corruption. If corruption is not controlled, the funds invested will be diverted from their intended use and therefore will not be properly used for growth. Hence, this assumption is correct as per the passage.


Passage – 39
Which one of the following statements best reflects the most critical inference that can be made from the passage given above? (a) Low intensity light has more adverse effect on the plants as compared to high intensity light. (b) Light pollution can have a permanent adverse impact on an ecosystem. (c) White light is better for the flowering of plants as compared to the light of other colours. (d) Proper intensity of light in an ecosystem is important not only for plants but for animals too.

Q1: Which one of the following statements best reflects the most critical inference that can be made from the passage given above?
(a) Low intensity light has more adverse effect on the plants as compared to high intensity light.
(b) Light pollution can have a permanent adverse impact on an ecosystem.
(c) White light is better for the flowering of plants as compared to the light of other colours.
(d) Proper intensity of light in an ecosystem is important not only for plants but for animals too.
Ans: 
(d)
Sol: Statement 1 is incorrect: The passage mentions that low-intensity light inhibits the flowering of a wildflower. However, it cannot be inferred that Low-intensity light has more adverse effects vis-vis High-intensity light.
Statement 2 is incorrect: This is an extreme statement, and it cannot be inferred from the passage that light pollution can have permanent adverse effects on the ecosystem. Further, light pollution is not explicitly mentioned in the passage, so cannot be inferred.
Statement 3 is incorrect: The passage does not mention that white color is good for the flowering of the plants. With this information, we cannot sufficiently infer that White light is better for the flowering of the plants vis-a-vis all the other lights of all the other colors.
Statement 4 is correct: The passage mentions that low-intensity light inhibits the flowering of plants. Further, it highlights that the number of aphids was also significantly suppressed under the light treatment due to the limited amount of food available. So, it can be inferred from the passage that the proper intensity of light in an ecosystem is important not only for plants (for flowering) but also for animals like aphids.
Hence, Option (d) is correct


Passage – 40
Approximately 80 percent of all flowering plant species are pollinated by animals, including birds and mammals, but the main pollinators are insects. Pollination is responsible for providing us with a wide variety of food, as well as many plant-derived medicines. At least one-third of the world’s agricultural crops depend upon pollination. Bees are the most dominant taxa when it comes to pollination and they are crucial to more than four hundred crops. Pollination is an essential service that is the result of intricate relationship between plants and animals, and the reduction or less of either affects the survival of both. Effective pollination requires resources, such as refuges of pristine natural vegetation.

Q1: On the basis of the passage given above, the following assumptions have been made:
1. Sustainable production of India’s cereal food grains is impossible without the diversity of pollinating animals.
2. Monoculture of horticultural crops hampers the survival of insects.
3. Pollinators become scarce in cultivated areas devoid of natural vegetation.
4. Diversity in insects induces diversity of plants. Which of the above assumptions is/are valid?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1 and 2 only
(d) 3 and 4 only
Ans: 
(d)
Sol: Statement 1 is incorrect: It is an extreme statement. Though the diversity of pollinating animals is important for the Sustainable production of India's cereal food grains and can be a valid assumption from the passage the word impossible is making this statement incorrect.
Statement 2 is incorrect: It cannot be explicitly assumed from the passage that the Monoculture of horticultural crops hampers the survival of insects. Also, the passage does not talk about hampering agricultural diversity due to monoculture practices leading to a reduction in pollinators.
Statement 3 is correct: From the following lines of the passage " Pollination is an essential service that is the result of an intricate relationship between plants and animals, and the reduction or loss of either affects the survival of both. Effective pollination requires resources, such as refuges of pristine natural vegetation" it can be assumed that the pollinators become scarce in cultivated areas devoid of natural vegetation.
Statement 4 is correct: From the following lines of the passage " Pollination is an essential service that is the result of an intricate relationship between plants and animals, and the reduction or loss of either affects the survival of both", it can be assumed that diversity in insects induces diversity of plants. Hence Option (d) is correct.

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FAQs on Reading Comprehension (31-40) - CSAT Preparation - UPSC

1. What are some common strategies for improving reading comprehension?
Ans. Some common strategies for improving reading comprehension include active reading, summarizing key points, asking questions while reading, and making connections to personal experiences or prior knowledge.
2. How can one improve their vocabulary to enhance reading comprehension?
Ans. To improve vocabulary for better reading comprehension, one can try reading a variety of materials, keeping a vocabulary journal, using flashcards, and practicing using new words in context.
3. What role does practice play in improving reading comprehension skills?
Ans. Practice is essential for improving reading comprehension skills as it helps to build fluency, expand vocabulary, enhance understanding of different text types, and strengthen critical thinking abilities.
4. How can one effectively analyze and interpret the main idea of a text?
Ans. To effectively analyze and interpret the main idea of a text, one can start by identifying key information, summarizing important points, looking for patterns or themes, and considering the author's purpose and perspective.
5. What are some effective ways to stay focused while reading to enhance comprehension?
Ans. Some effective ways to stay focused while reading include finding a quiet and comfortable environment, setting specific reading goals, taking breaks when needed, and actively engaging with the text by asking questions or making predictions.
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