UPSC  >  NCERT Solutions: Matter In Our Surroundings

# Matter In Our Surroundings NCERT Solutions - Science & Technology for UPSC CSE

 Table of contents Page No. 3 Page No. 6 Page No. 9 Page No. 10 Page No. 12

## Page No. 3

Q1. Which of the following are matter?
Chair, air, love, smell, hate, almonds, thought, cold, lemon water, the smell of perfume.
Ans: The following substances are matter: Chair, Air, Almonds, Lemon water,
The smell of perfume (Smell is considered as a matter due to the presence of some volatile substances in air that occupy space & have mass.)

Matter around us

Q2. Give reasons for the following observation.
The smell of hot sizzling food reaches you several meters away, but to get the smell from cold food, you have to go close.
Ans: Particles in the air, if fueled with higher temperatures, acquire high kinetic energy, which aids them to move fast over a stretch. Hence, the smell of hot sizzling food reaches a person even at a distance of several meters.

Q3. A diver is able to cut through water in a swimming pool. Which property of matter does this observation show?
Ans:
The particles of every matter have a force of attraction between them. This force keeps the particles together in a matter. In the case of water, the force of attraction between particles is less in comparison to solids. Thus, water molecules flow easily, giving way to a diver.

Showing less intermolecular force between liquid molecules.

Q4. What are the characteristics of the particles of matter?
Ans:  The characteristics of particles of matter are:
(i) Presence of intermolecular spaces between particles.
(ii) Particles are in constant motion.
(iii) They attract each other.

## Page No. 6

Q1. The mass per unit volume of a substance is called density.
(density=mass/volume). Arrange the following in the order of increasing density – air, exhaust from the chimneys, honey, water, chalk, cotton and iron.
Ans: The following substances are arranged in increasing density: Air < Exhaust from chimney <  Cotton < Water <  Honey < Chalk < Iron

Q2. (a) Tabulate the differences in the characterisitcs of states of matter.
(b) Comment upon the following: rigidity, compressibility, fluidity, filling a gas container, shape, kinetic energy and density.
Ans:
(a) The difference in the characteristics of the three states of matter solid, liquid and gas are:-

(b)
(i) Rigidity: It is the property of matter to continue to remain in its shape when treated with an external force.
(ii) Compressibility: It is the attribute of the particles to contract their intermolecular space when exposed to an external force, thereby escalating its density.
(iii) Fluidity: It is the ability of a substance to flow or move about freely.
(iv) Filling the gas container: The particles in a container take their shape as they randomly vibrate in all possible directions.
(v) Shape: It is the definite structure of an object within an external boundary.
(vi) Kinetic energy: Motion allows particles to possess energy which is referred to as kinetic energy. The increasing order of kinetic energy possessed by various states of matter are: Solids < Liquids < Gases
Mathematically, it can be expressed as K.E = 1/2 mv2, where ‘m’ is the mass and ‘v’ is the velocity of the particle.
(vii) Density: It is the mass of a unit volume of a substance. It is expressed as: d = M/V, where ‘d’ is the density, ‘M’ is the mass and ‘V’ is the volume of the substance

Q3. Give reasons
(a) A gas fills completely the vessel in which it is kept.
(b) A gas exerts pressure on the walls of the container.
(c) A wooden table should be called a solid.
(d) We can easily move our hand in the air, but to do the same through a solid block of wood, we need a karate expert.
Ans:

(a) There is a low force of attraction between gas particles. The particles in the filled vessel are free to move about.
(b) Gaseous particles have the weakest attraction force. They are always moving in a haphazard manner. When a gas particle collides with the container’s walls, it exerts force and, thus pressure on the wall.
(c) There is a distinct contour and volume to the hardwood table. The wood particles are tightly packed. They do not conform to the container’s shape. As a result, the solid features of a hardwood table are satisfied.
(d) The boundaries between air particles are quite loose. They are a long way apart and have a lot of space between them. As a result, we may move our hands freely in the air. The particles in a solid block, on the other hand, are bound together by a strong force of attraction. As a result, there is either some or no space between them. As a result, we will require a karate expert.

Q4. Liquids generally have lower density as compared to solids. But you must have observed that ice floats on water. Find out why?

Ans:

• The mass per unit volume of a substance is called density (density = mass/volume).
• As the volume of a substance increases, its density decreases. Liquids have lower density than that of solids. Water is also a liquid so it should also have less density than that of solid that is ice.
• Though ice is a solid, but it has a cage like structure hence there are large number of empty spaces between its particles. These spaces are larger as compared to the spaces present between the particles of water. Thus for a given mass of water, volume of ice is greater than that of water.
• Hence, the density of ice is less than that of water. A substance with lower density than water can float on water. Therefore, ice floats on water.

## Page No. 9

Q1. Convert the following temperature to Celsius scale:
(a) 300 K
(b) 573 K
Ans:
(a) 300 K = (300 - 273)°C = 27°C
(b) 573 K = (573 - 273)°C = 300°C

Q2. What is the physical state of water at:
(a) 250°C
(b) 100°C
Ans:
(a) At 250°C, the physical state of water is gas as the temperature is beyond its boiling point.
(b) At 100°C, It is at the transition state as the water is at its boiling point. Hence, it would be present in both liquid and gaseous state.

Q3. For any substance, why does the temperature remain constant during the change of state.
Ans: It is due to the latent heat as the heat supplied to increase the temperature of the substance is used up to transform the state of matter of the substance; hence, the temperature stays constant.

Q4. Suggest a method to liquefy atmospheric gases.
Ans:
To transform a gas into a liquid, it is necessary to bring its constituent particles or molecules closer. This can be achieved with atmospheric gases by either increasing the pressure or lowering the temperature.

## Page No. 10

Q1. Why does a desert cooler cool better on a hot dry day?
Ans: It is because the temperature is high and it is less humid on a hot dry day which enables better evaporation. High levels of this evaporation provide better cooling effects.

Q2. How does the water kept in an earthen pot (matka) become cool during summer?
Ans:
An earthen pot is porous in nature. These tiny pores facilitate the penetration of water and hence their evaporation from the pot surface. The process of evaporation requires energy which is contributed by water in the pot as a result of which water turns cooler.

Q3. Why does our palm feel cold when we put some acetone or petrol or perfume on it?
Ans:
Acetone, petrol and perfume are highly volatile compounds. When we place them on our palm, they evaporate at a high rate and absorb heat from our palm; as a result, our palm feels cold.

Q4. Why are we able to sip hot tea or milk faster from a saucer rather than a cup?
Ans: A saucer has a larger surface area than a cup, promoting quicker evaporation. Hence, the tea or milk in a saucer cools down faster.

Q5. What type of clothes should we wear in summer?
Ans:
In summer, it is preferred to wear light-coloured cotton clothes because light colour reflects heat and cotton materials have pores that absorb sweat, facilitating evaporation, and hence causing a cooling effect on the skin.

## Page No. 12

### Exercises

Q1. Convert the following temperature to Celsius scale.
(a) 293K
(b) 470K
Ans:
0°C=273K
(a) 293K= (293 – 273)°C = 20°C
(b) 470K= (470 – 273)°C = 197°C

Q2. Convert the following temperatures to the kelvin scale.
(a) 25°C

(b) 373°C
Ans:
0°C = 273K
(a) 25°C = (25+273)K = 298K
(b) 373°C = (373+273)K = 646K

Q3. Give reason for the following observations:
(a) Naphthalene balls disappear with time without leaving any solid.
(b) We can get the smell of perfume sitting several metres away.
Ans:

(a) At room temperature, naphthalene balls undergo sublimation wherein they directly get converted from a solid to a gaseous state without undergoing the intermediate state, i.e., the liquid state.

Naphthalene Balls

(b) It is because perfumes contain a volatile organic solvent that can easily diffuse through air and hence, carry the fragrance to people sitting several metres away.

Q4. Arrange the following substances in increasing order of forces of attraction between the particles— water, sugar, oxygen.
Ans:
Oxygen (gas) < Water (liquid) < Sugar (solid)

Q5. What is the physical state of water at:
(a) 25°C, (b) 0°C, (c) 100°C?

Ans: The physical state of water at:
(a) At 25°C, the water will be in liquid form (normal room temperature).
(b) At 0°C, the water is at its freezing point, hence both solid and liquid phases are observed.
(c) At 100°C, the water is at its boiling point, hence both liquid and gaseous states of water (water vapour) are observed.

Q6. Give two reasons to justify.
(a) Water at room temperature is a liquid.
(b) An iron almirah is a solid at room temperature.
Ans:
(a) Water persists as a liquid at room temperature since its melting point is lower than room temperature and its boiling point (100oC) is higher.
Similarly,

• A fixed volume is occupied by a fixed mass of water.
• At room temperature, water does not have a fixed shape and flows to fit the container’s shape.

As a result, water is a liquid at room temperature.

(b) Because its melting and boiling points are above room temperature, an iron almirah is a solid at room temperature. In the same way,

• An iron almirah is rigid and has a predetermined shape.
• Metals have a relatively high density.

As a result, at room temperature, iron almirah is a solid.

Q7. Why is ice at 273 K more effective in cooling than water at the same temperature?
Ans: At 273 K, ice will absorb heat energy or latent heat from the medium to overcome fusion and transform into water. As a result, ice has a greater cooling impact than water at the same temperature since water does not absorb the excess heat from the medium.

Q8. What produces more severe burns, boiling water or steam?
Ans:
Steam produces severe burns. It is because it is an exothermic reaction that releases a high amount of heat which it had consumed during vaporization.

Q9. Name A, B, C, D, E and F in the following diagram showing change in its state.

Ans: Interconversion of three states of matter: Using temperature or pressure, any state of matter can be turned into another.
(A) Solid to Liquid → Melting (or) fusion (or) liquefaction
(B) Liquid to Gas → Evaporation (or) vaporization
(C) Gas to liquid → Condensation
(D) Liquid to Solid → Solidification
(E) Solid to Gas → Sublimation
(F) Gas to Solid → solidification

The document Matter In Our Surroundings NCERT Solutions | Science & Technology for UPSC CSE is a part of the UPSC Course Science & Technology for UPSC CSE.
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## FAQs on Matter In Our Surroundings NCERT Solutions - Science & Technology for UPSC CSE

 1. What is matter and what are the three states of matter?
Ans. Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. The three states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. In solids, particles are tightly packed and have a fixed shape and volume. In liquids, particles are close together, but not as tightly packed as in solids and have a fixed volume but not a fixed shape. In gases, particles are spread out and have neither a fixed shape nor a fixed volume.
 2. What is the effect of temperature on the state of matter?
Ans. The effect of temperature on the state of matter is significant. As temperature increases, most substances tend to change from solid to liquid and from liquid to gas. When a solid is heated, the particles start vibrating faster and move apart, leading to a change in state from solid to liquid. Further heating causes the particles to move faster and farther apart, leading to a change in state from liquid to gas.
 3. What is sublimation and give an example?
Ans. Sublimation is the conversion of a solid directly into a gas, without passing through the liquid state. An example of sublimation is the process of dry ice. Dry ice is solid carbon dioxide and when it is heated, it directly converts into a gas without melting into a liquid.
 4. What is the difference between evaporation and boiling?
Ans. Evaporation is the process of changing a liquid into a gas at a temperature below its boiling point. It occurs at the surface of the liquid and is a slow process. Boiling, on the other hand, is the process of changing a liquid into a gas at a specific temperature called the boiling point. It occurs throughout the liquid and is a fast process.
 5. What is humidity and how does it affect the rate of evaporation?
Ans. Humidity refers to the amount of water vapor in the air. The higher the humidity, the lower the rate of evaporation. This is because when the air is already saturated with water vapor, it cannot hold any more water vapor. Therefore, the rate of evaporation decreases with an increase in humidity.

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