Q1. Which of the following are matter?
Chair, air, love, smell, hate, almonds, thought, cold, lemon water, the smell of perfume.
Ans: The following substances are matter: Chair, Air, Almonds, Lemon water,
The smell of perfume (Smell is considered as a matter due to the presence of some volatile substances in air that occupy space & have mass.)
Matter around us
Q2. Give reasons for the following observation.
The smell of hot sizzling food reaches you several meters away, but to get the smell from cold food, you have to go close.
Ans: Particles in the air, if fueled with higher temperatures, acquire high kinetic energy, which aids them to move fast over a stretch. Hence, the smell of hot sizzling food reaches a person even at a distance of several meters.
Q3. A diver is able to cut through water in a swimming pool. Which property of matter does this observation show?
Ans: The particles of every matter have a force of attraction between them. This force keeps the particles together in a matter. In the case of water, the force of attraction between particles is less in comparison to solids. Thus, water molecules flow easily, giving way to a diver.
Showing less intermolecular force between liquid molecules.
Q4. What are the characteristics of the particles of matter?
Ans: The characteristics of particles of matter are:
(i) Presence of intermolecular spaces between particles.
(ii) Particles are in constant motion.
(iii) They attract each other.
Q1. The mass per unit volume of a substance is called density.
(density=mass/volume). Arrange the following in the order of increasing density – air, exhaust from the chimneys, honey, water, chalk, cotton and iron.
Ans: The following substances are arranged in increasing density: Air < Exhaust from chimney < Cotton < Water < Honey < Chalk < Iron
Q2. (a) Tabulate the differences in the characterisitcs of states of matter.
(b) Comment upon the following: rigidity, compressibility, fluidity, filling a gas container, shape, kinetic energy and density.
Ans: (a) The difference in the characteristics of the three states of matter solid, liquid and gas are:-
(i) Rigidity: It is the property of matter to continue to remain in its shape when treated with an external force.
(ii) Compressibility: It is the attribute of the particles to contract their intermolecular space when exposed to an external force, thereby escalating its density.
(iii) Fluidity: It is the ability of a substance to flow or move about freely.
(iv) Filling the gas container: The particles in a container take their shape as they randomly vibrate in all possible directions.
(v) Shape: It is the definite structure of an object within an external boundary.
(vi) Kinetic energy: Motion allows particles to possess energy which is referred to as kinetic energy. The increasing order of kinetic energy possessed by various states of matter are: Solids < Liquids < Gases
Mathematically, it can be expressed as K.E = 1/2 mv2, where ‘m’ is the mass and ‘v’ is the velocity of the particle.
(vii) Density: It is the mass of a unit volume of a substance. It is expressed as: d = M/V, where ‘d’ is the density, ‘M’ is the mass and ‘V’ is the volume of the substance
Q3. Give reasons
(a) A gas fills completely the vessel in which it is kept.
(b) A gas exerts pressure on the walls of the container.
(c) A wooden table should be called a solid.
(d) We can easily move our hand in the air, but to do the same through a solid block of wood, we need a karate expert.
(a) There is a low force of attraction between gas particles. The particles in the filled vessel are free to move about.
(b) Gaseous particles have the weakest attraction force. They are always moving in a haphazard manner. When a gas particle collides with the container’s walls, it exerts force and, thus pressure on the wall.
(c) There is a distinct contour and volume to the hardwood table. The wood particles are tightly packed. They do not conform to the container’s shape. As a result, the solid features of a hardwood table are satisfied.
(d) The boundaries between air particles are quite loose. They are a long way apart and have a lot of space between them. As a result, we may move our hands freely in the air. The particles in a solid block, on the other hand, are bound together by a strong force of attraction. As a result, there is either some or no space between them. As a result, we will require a karate expert.
Q4. Liquids generally have lower density as compared to solids. But you must have observed that ice floats on water. Find out why?
Q1. Convert the following temperature to Celsius scale:
(a) 300 K
(b) 573 K
(a) 300 K = (300 - 273)°C = 27°C
(b) 573 K = (573 - 273)°C = 300°C
Q2. What is the physical state of water at:
(a) At 250°C, the physical state of water is gas as the temperature is beyond its boiling point.
(b) At 100°C, It is at the transition state as the water is at its boiling point. Hence, it would be present in both liquid and gaseous state.
Q3. For any substance, why does the temperature remain constant during the change of state.
Ans: It is due to the latent heat as the heat supplied to increase the temperature of the substance is used up to transform the state of matter of the substance; hence, the temperature stays constant.
Q4. Suggest a method to liquefy atmospheric gases.
Ans: To transform a gas into a liquid, it is necessary to bring its constituent particles or molecules closer. This can be achieved with atmospheric gases by either increasing the pressure or lowering the temperature.
Q1. Why does a desert cooler cool better on a hot dry day?
Ans: It is because the temperature is high and it is less humid on a hot dry day which enables better evaporation. High levels of this evaporation provide better cooling effects.
Q2. How does the water kept in an earthen pot (matka) become cool during summer?
Ans: An earthen pot is porous in nature. These tiny pores facilitate the penetration of water and hence their evaporation from the pot surface. The process of evaporation requires energy which is contributed by water in the pot as a result of which water turns cooler.
Q3. Why does our palm feel cold when we put some acetone or petrol or perfume on it?
Ans: Acetone, petrol and perfume are highly volatile compounds. When we place them on our palm, they evaporate at a high rate and absorb heat from our palm; as a result, our palm feels cold.
Q4. Why are we able to sip hot tea or milk faster from a saucer rather than a cup?
Ans: A saucer has a larger surface area than a cup, promoting quicker evaporation. Hence, the tea or milk in a saucer cools down faster.
Q5. What type of clothes should we wear in summer?
Ans: In summer, it is preferred to wear light-coloured cotton clothes because light colour reflects heat and cotton materials have pores that absorb sweat, facilitating evaporation, and hence causing a cooling effect on the skin.
Q1. Convert the following temperature to Celsius scale.
(a) 293K= (293 – 273)°C = 20°C
(b) 470K= (470 – 273)°C = 197°C
Q2. Convert the following temperatures to the kelvin scale.
0°C = 273K
(a) 25°C = (25+273)K = 298K
(b) 373°C = (373+273)K = 646K
Q3. Give reason for the following observations:
(a) Naphthalene balls disappear with time without leaving any solid.
(b) We can get the smell of perfume sitting several metres away.
(a) At room temperature, naphthalene balls undergo sublimation wherein they directly get converted from a solid to a gaseous state without undergoing the intermediate state, i.e., the liquid state.
(b) It is because perfumes contain a volatile organic solvent that can easily diffuse through air and hence, carry the fragrance to people sitting several metres away.
Q4. Arrange the following substances in increasing order of forces of attraction between the particles— water, sugar, oxygen.
Ans: Oxygen (gas) < Water (liquid) < Sugar (solid)
Q5. What is the physical state of water at:
(a) 25°C, (b) 0°C, (c) 100°C?
Ans: The physical state of water at:
(a) At 25°C, the water will be in liquid form (normal room temperature).
(b) At 0°C, the water is at its freezing point, hence both solid and liquid phases are observed.
(c) At 100°C, the water is at its boiling point, hence both liquid and gaseous states of water (water vapour) are observed.
Q6. Give two reasons to justify.
(a) Water at room temperature is a liquid.
(b) An iron almirah is a solid at room temperature.
(a) Water persists as a liquid at room temperature since its melting point is lower than room temperature and its boiling point (100oC) is higher.
As a result, water is a liquid at room temperature.
(b) Because its melting and boiling points are above room temperature, an iron almirah is a solid at room temperature. In the same way,
As a result, at room temperature, iron almirah is a solid.
Q7. Why is ice at 273 K more effective in cooling than water at the same temperature?
Ans: At 273 K, ice will absorb heat energy or latent heat from the medium to overcome fusion and transform into water. As a result, ice has a greater cooling impact than water at the same temperature since water does not absorb the excess heat from the medium.
Q8. What produces more severe burns, boiling water or steam?
Ans: Steam produces severe burns. It is because it is an exothermic reaction that releases a high amount of heat which it had consumed during vaporization.
Q9. Name A, B, C, D, E and F in the following diagram showing change in its state.
Ans: Interconversion of three states of matter: Using temperature or pressure, any state of matter can be turned into another.
(A) Solid to Liquid → Melting (or) fusion (or) liquefaction
(B) Liquid to Gas → Evaporation (or) vaporization
(C) Gas to liquid → Condensation
(D) Liquid to Solid → Solidification
(E) Solid to Gas → Sublimation
(F) Gas to Solid → solidification
|1. What is matter and what are the three states of matter?|
|2. What is the effect of temperature on the state of matter?|
|3. What is sublimation and give an example?|
|4. What is the difference between evaporation and boiling?|
|5. What is humidity and how does it affect the rate of evaporation?|