NCERT Solutions: Matter In Our Surroundings

# NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 1 - Matter In Our Surroundings

 Table of contents Page No. 3 Page No. 6 Page No. 9 Page No. 10 Page No. 12

## Page No. 3

Q1. Which of the following are matter?
Chair, air, love, smell, hate, almonds, thought, cold, lemon water, the smell of perfume.
Ans: The following substances are matter: Chair, Air, Almonds, Lemon water, the smell of perfume (Smell is considered as a matter due to the presence of some volatile substances in air that occupy space & have mass.)

Matter around us

Q2. Give reasons for the following observation.
The smell of hot sizzling food reaches you several meters away, but to get the smell from cold food, you have to go close.
Ans: When the air is heated, the particles in it gain more kinetic energy and move faster. This is why the smell of hot food can travel far, allowing a person to sense it even from several meters away.

Q3. A diver is able to cut through water in a swimming pool. Which property of matter does this observation show?
Ans:
The particles of every matter have a force of attraction between them. This force keeps the particles together in a matter. In the case of water, the force of attraction between particles is less in comparison to solids. Thus, water molecules flow easily, giving way to a diver.

Showing less intermolecular force between liquid molecules.

Q4. What are the characteristics of the particles of matter?
Ans:  The characteristics of particles of matter are:
(i) Presence of intermolecular spaces between particles.
(ii) Particles are in constant motion.
(iii) They attract each other.

## Page No. 6

Q1. The mass per unit volume of a substance is called density.
(density=mass/volume). Arrange the following in the order of increasing density – air, exhaust from the chimneys, honey, water, chalk, cotton and iron.
Ans: The following substances are arranged in increasing density: Air < Exhaust from chimney <  Cotton < Water <  Honey < Chalk < Iron

Q2. (a) Tabulate the differences in the characterisitcs of states of matter.
(b) Comment upon the following: rigidity, compressibility, fluidity, filling a gas container, shape, kinetic energy and density.
Ans:
(a) The difference in the characteristics of the three states of matter solid, liquid and gas are:-

(b)
(i) Rigidity: It is the property of matter to continue to remain in its shape when treated with an external force.
(ii) Compressibility: Particles have the ability to reduce their intermolecular space when an external force is applied, which increases their density. This is characteristic is called compressibility.
(iii) Fluidity: It is the ability of a substance to flow or move about freely.
(iv) Filling the gas container: The particles in a container take their shape as they randomly vibrate in all possible directions.
(v) Shape: It is the definite structure of an object within an external boundary.
(vi) Kinetic energy: Motion allows particles to possess energy which is referred to as kinetic energy. The increasing order of kinetic energy possessed by various states of matter are: Solids < Liquids < Gases
Mathematically, it can be expressed as K.E = 1/2 mv2, where ‘m’ is the mass and ‘v’ is the velocity of the particle.
(vii) Density: It is the mass of a unit volume of a substance. It is expressed as: d = M/V, where ‘d’ is the density, ‘M’ is the mass and ‘V’ is the volume of the substance

Q3. Give reasons
(a) A gas fills completely the vessel in which it is kept.
(b) A gas exerts pressure on the walls of the container.
(c) A wooden table should be called a solid.
(d) We can easily move our hand in the air, but to do the same through a solid block of wood, we need a karate expert.
Ans:

(a) There is a low force of attraction between gas particles. The particles in the filled vessel are free to move about.
(b) Gaseous particles have the weakest attraction force and move randomly in all directions. When a gas particle hits the walls of its container, it applies a force, creating pressure on the walls.
(c) The hardwood table has a clear shape and volume. The wood particles are tightly packed and do not change to fit the shape of a container. This gives the table its solid properties.
(d) The air particles are spread far apart with a lot of space between them, which is why we can move our hands freely through the air. However, in a solid block, the particles are held tightly together by a strong force of attraction, leaving little or no space between them. That's why breaking a solid block would require the strength of a karate expert.

Q4. Liquids generally have lower density as compared to solids. But you must have observed that ice floats on water. Find out why?

Ans:

• The mass per unit volume of a substance is called density (density = mass/volume).
• As the volume of a substance increases, its density decreases. Liquids have lower density than that of solids. Water is also a liquid so it should also have less density than that of solid that is ice.
• Though ice is a solid, but it has a cage like structure hence there are large number of empty spaces between its particles. These spaces are larger as compared to the spaces present between the particles of water. Thus for a given mass of water, volume of ice is greater than that of water.
• Hence, the density of ice is less than that of water. A substance with lower density than water can float on water. Therefore, ice floats on water.

## Page No. 9

Q1. Convert the following temperature to Celsius scale:
(a) 300 K
(b) 573 K
Ans:
To convert a temperature from the Kelvin scale to the Celsius scale, you simply subtract 273 from the given Kelvin temperature.

(a)  (300 - 273)°C = 27°C
(b) (573 - 273)°C = 300°C

Q2. What is the physical state of water at:
(a) 250°C
(b) 100°C
Ans:
(a) At 250°C, the physical state of water is gas as the temperature is beyond its boiling point.
(b) At 100°C, It is at the transition state as the water is at its boiling point. Hence, it would be present in both liquid and gaseous state.

Q3. For any substance, why does the temperature remain constant during the change of state.
Ans: It is due to the latent heat as the heat supplied to increase the temperature of the substance is used up to transform the state of matter of the substance; hence, the temperature stays constant.

Q4. Suggest a method to liquefy atmospheric gases.
Ans:
To transform a gas into a liquid, it is necessary to bring its constituent particles or molecules closer. This can be achieved with atmospheric gases by either increasing the pressure or lowering the temperature.

## Page No. 10

Q1. Why does a desert cooler cool better on a hot dry day?
Ans: It is because the temperature is high and it is less humid on a hot dry day which results in better evaporation. High levels of this evaporation provide better cooling effects.

Q2. How does the water kept in an earthen pot (matka) become cool during summer?
Ans:
An earthen pot has tiny pores that allow water to pass through and evaporate from the surface. Evaporation needs energy, which comes from the water inside the pot, making the water cooler as a result.

Q3. Why does our palm feel cold when we put some acetone or petrol or perfume on it?
Ans:
Acetone, petrol and perfume are highly volatile compounds. When we place them on our palm, they evaporate at a high rate and absorb heat from our palm; as a result, our palm feels cold.

Q4. Why are we able to sip hot tea or milk faster from a saucer rather than a cup?
Ans: A saucer has a larger surface area than a cup, promoting quicker evaporation. Hence, the tea or milk in a saucer cools down faster.

Q5. What type of clothes should we wear in summer?
Ans:
In summer, it is preferred to wear light-coloured cotton clothes because light colour reflects heat and cotton materials have pores that absorb sweat, facilitating evaporation, and hence causing a cooling effect on the skin.

## Page No. 12

### Exercises

Q1. Convert the following temperature to Celsius scale.
(a) 293K
(b) 470K
Ans: To convert a temperature from the Kelvin scale to the Celsius scale, you simply subtract 273 from the given Kelvin temperature because 0°C=273K.
(a) 293K= (293 – 273)°C = 20°C
(b) 470K= (470 – 273)°C = 197°C

Q2. Convert the following temperatures to the kelvin scale.
(a) 25°C

(b) 373°C
Ans:
0°C = 273K
(a) 25°C = (25+273)K = 298K
(b) 373°C = (373+273)K = 646K

Q3. Give reason for the following observations:
(a) Naphthalene balls disappear with time without leaving any solid.
(b) We can get the smell of perfume sitting several metres away.
Ans:

(a) At room temperature, naphthalene balls undergo sublimation, which means they change directly from a solid to a gaseous state without undergoing the intermediate state, i.e., the liquid state.

Naphthalene Balls

(b) It is because perfumes contain a volatile organic solvent that can easily diffuse through air and hence, carry the fragrance to people sitting several metres away.

Q4. Arrange the following substances in increasing order of forces of attraction between the particles— water, sugar, oxygen.
Ans:
Oxygen (gas) < Water (liquid) < Sugar (solid)

Q5. What is the physical state of water at:
(a) 25°C, (b) 0°C, (c) 100°C?

Ans: The physical state of water at:
(a) At 25°C, the water will be in liquid form (normal room temperature).
(b) At 0°C, the water is at its freezing point, hence both solid and liquid phases are observed.
(c) At 100°C, the water is at its boiling point, hence both liquid and gaseous states of water (water vapour) are observed.

Q6. Give two reasons to justify.
(a) Water at room temperature is a liquid.
(b) An iron almirah is a solid at room temperature.
Ans:
(a) Water persists as a liquid at room temperature since its melting point is lower than room temperature and its boiling point (100oC) is higher.
Similarly,

• A fixed volume is occupied by a fixed mass of water.
• At room temperature, water does not have a fixed shape and flows to fit the container’s shape.

As a result, water is a liquid at room temperature.

(b) Because its melting and boiling points are above room temperature, an iron almirah is a solid at room temperature. In the same way,

• An iron almirah is rigid and has a predetermined shape.
• Metals have a relatively high density.

As a result, at room temperature, iron almirah is a solid.

Q7. Why is ice at 273 K more effective in cooling than water at the same temperature?
Ans: At 273 K, ice will absorb heat energy or latent heat from the medium to overcome fusion and transform into water. As a result, ice has a greater cooling impact than water at the same temperature since water does not absorb the excess heat from the medium.

Q8. What produces more severe burns, boiling water or steam?
Ans:
Steam produces severe burns. It is because it is an exothermic reaction that releases a high amount of heat which it had consumed during vaporization.

Q9. Name A, B, C, D, E and F in the following diagram showing change in its state.

Ans: Interconversion of three states of matter: Using temperature or pressure, any state of matter can be turned into another.
(A) Solid to Liquid → Melting (or) fusion (or) liquefaction
(B) Liquid to Gas → Evaporation (or) vaporization
(C) Gas to liquid → Condensation
(D) Liquid to Solid → Solidification
(E) Solid to Gas → Sublimation
(F) Gas to Solid → Deposition

The document NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 1 - Matter In Our Surroundings is a part of the Class 9 Course Science Class 9.
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## Science Class 9

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## FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 1 - Matter In Our Surroundings

 1. What is matter and what are its different states?
Ans. Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. It exists in various states, primarily solid, liquid, and gas. In solids, particles are closely packed and vibrate in fixed positions. In liquids, particles are close but can move past each other, allowing them to flow. In gases, particles are far apart and move freely, filling the available space.
 2. How can we differentiate between solids, liquids, and gases?
Ans. The differentiation between solids, liquids, and gases is based on their shape, volume, and particle arrangement. Solids have a definite shape and volume, liquids have a definite volume but no fixed shape, and gases have neither a definite shape nor volume. This is due to the arrangement and movement of particles in each state.
 3. What are the properties of gases that distinguish them from solids and liquids?
Ans. Gases have unique properties that distinguish them from solids and liquids. They can be compressed easily, have low density, and occupy the entire volume of their container. Gases also expand to fill the available space and have high kinetic energy, allowing their particles to move rapidly and freely.
 4. What is the significance of temperature and pressure in the states of matter?
Ans. Temperature and pressure play crucial roles in determining the state of matter. Increasing temperature typically increases the kinetic energy of particles, which can lead to a change from solid to liquid (melting) or from liquid to gas (vaporization). Conversely, increasing pressure can compress gases and may cause a gas to become a liquid (condensation) or a solid (sublimation).
 5. How does the concept of diffusion relate to the states of matter?
Ans. Diffusion is the process by which particles spread from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. In gases, diffusion occurs rapidly due to the high kinetic energy and distance between particles. In liquids, diffusion is slower, and in solids, it occurs very slowly, as particles are tightly packed. This concept helps explain how substances mix and interact in different states of matter.

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