Chapter Notes - The World Population Distribution

# The World Population Distribution Class 12 Geography

 Table of contents Introduction Patterns of Population Distribution in the World Density of Population Factors Influencing The Distribution Of Population Population Growth Demographic Transition Population Control Measures Conclusion

## Introduction

The people in a country are its greatest asset. They use the country's resources and make key decisions. In the end, a country is defined by its people. Therefore, it is important to understand some characteristics related to the people of a country, such as:

• Population: How many men and women live in the country?
• Birth Rate: How many babies are born each year?
• Death Rate: How many people die each year and what causes it?
• Living Conditions: Do people live in cities or villages?

## Patterns of Population Distribution in the World

• The distribution of the world's population is not uniform across its surface.
• This uneven distribution can be referred to as population distribution.
• Approximately 90% of the global population resides in only 10% of its land area.
• Furthermore, the top 10 most populated countries in the world account for approximately 60% of the world's population.
• of these countries located in Asia.

## Density of Population

The density of population is the ratio of the number of people to the size of the land they occupy, typically measured in persons per square kilometer.

Density of Population = Population/Area

For example, if City A has an area of 200 square kilometers and a population of 500,000 people, you can find the population density by dividing the population by the area:

Density = Population / Area

So, the calculation would be:

Density = 500,000 / 200 = 2,500 people per square kilometer.

This means that in every square kilometer, there are 2,500 people residing in this city.

Question for Chapter Notes - The World Population Distribution
Try yourself:
What is the ratio used to measure the density of population?

## Factors Influencing The Distribution Of Population

### 1. Geographical Factors

• Availability of water: People tend to live in areas where fresh water is easily accessible since water is necessary for drinking, bathing, cooking, raising cattle, growing crops, supporting industries, and navigation.
• Landforms: People prefer to live on flat plains and gentle slopes since these areas are ideal for crop production, building roads, and constructing industries.
• Climate: Extremely hot or cold deserts are not favorable for human habitation. Areas with comfortable climates, where seasonal variation is minimal, tend to attract more people.
• Soil fertility: Areas with fertile loamy soils that are suitable for agriculture and related activities tend to have more inhabitants.

### 2. Economic Factors

• Mineral deposits: Areas with mineral resources tend to attract industries, and mining and industrial activities often create employment opportunities, leading to higher population densities.
• Urbanization: Cities tend to offer better employment opportunities, educational and medical facilities, as well as improved means of transport and communication, which can attract a significant number of people.
• Industrialization: Industrial belts provide job opportunities, and this often results in a large influx of people into these areas, providing an incentive for people to settle in such areas.

### 3. Social and Cultural Factors

• Religious and cultural significance:  Some places attract more people due to their religious and cultural significance. Conversely, social and political unrest may lead people to move away from certain locations.
• Incentives by the government: Governments may offer incentives for people to move to sparsely populated areas or relocate from overcrowded regions. These incentives may include tax breaks, housing subsidies, and employment opportunities, among others.

Question for Chapter Notes - The World Population Distribution
Try yourself:Which factor is not considered in influencing the distribution of population?

## Population Growth

• Population growth or change refers to the increase or decrease in the number of inhabitants in a particular area during a specific period of time.
• Population change is a crucial indicator of economic development, social progress, and the historical and cultural background of a region. It can reflect the availability of resources, social and economic opportunities, and cultural practices that influence the growth or decline of the population in a particular area.

### Basic Concepts of Population Geography

1. Growth of Population
It is the change in population size in a particular area between two points in time. For example, if we subtract India’s population in 2001 (102.70 crores) from the population in 2011 (121.02 crores), we get the actual population growth, which is 18.15 crores.

2. Growth Rate of Population
The growth rate of population is the percentage change in population size over time.

To find the population growth in percentage for the figures stated above, we use the formula:

Growth Percentage = (Population Increase/Population in 2001) × 100

Given:

• Population in 2001 = 102.70 crores
• Population in 2011 = 121.02 crores
• Population Increase = 121.02 crores - 102.70 crores = 18.32 crores

Substituting in the formula:

Growth Percentage=(18.32/102.70) × 100 ≈ 17.83

So, the population grew by approximately 17.83% from 2001 to 2011.

3. Natural growth of population:
It is the increase in population resulting from the difference between births and deaths in a particular region between two points in time. It can be calculated by subtracting the number of deaths from the number of births.

Natural Growth  =  Births  –  Deaths

4. Actual growth of population
It takes into account both natural increase (births minus deaths) and migration. It can be calculated by subtracting the number of deaths and out-migrants from the number of births and in-migrants.

Actual growth of population = Births – Deaths + In Migration – Out Migration

5. Positive growth of population
It occurs when the birth rate exceeds the death rate or when people from other countries migrate permanently to a region.

6. Negative growth of population
It occurs when the population decreases between two points in time, which can result from a decrease in birth rate, an increase in death rate, or people migrating to other countries.

### Components of Population Change

• Population change is determined by three factors: births, deaths, and migration.
• The crude birth rate (CBR) is the number of live births in a year per 1000 of the population. It is calculated by dividing the number of live births during the year by the mid-year population of the area and multiplying it by 1000.
CBR = (Number of Live Births / Mid-Year Population) x 1000
• The crude death rate (CDR) is the number of deaths in a particular year per 1000 of the population in a particular region. It is calculated by dividing the number of deaths during the year by the estimated mid-year population of that year and multiplying it by 1000.
CDR = (Number of Deaths / Estimated Mid-Year Population) x 1000
• Both CBR and CDR are useful measures for tracking changes in the size and characteristics of a population over time. They are often used in demographic studies, health research, and policymaking.

Question for Chapter Notes - The World Population Distribution
Try yourself:
Which factor does not contribute to population change?

### Migration

• There may be other factors that influence migration such as education, family reunification, and personal preferences.
• Migration has significant impacts on both the place of origin and destination. In the place of origin, it may lead to a loss of labour force, brain drain, and cultural and social changes. In the place of destination, it may lead to an increase in diversity, economic growth, and social and cultural changes.
• Governments may have policies in place to regulate migration, such as immigration laws and border controls. However, migration can also occur through illegal means, such as human trafficking and smuggling.
• Immigration: Migrants who move into a new place are called Immigrants.
• Emigration: Migrants who move out of a place are called Emigrants.

Push factors

• Push factors drive people away from their place of origin due to unfavorable conditions.
• Example: In regions like rural Zimbabwe or parts of Greece during the economic crisis, high unemployment rates compel people to seek better job opportunities elsewhere.

Pull factors

• Pull factors attract people to a new location by offering better opportunities and conditions.
• Example: Silicon Valley in California attracts tech professionals from around the world due to the high demand for skilled workers and lucrative job prospects

Question for Chapter Notes - The World Population Distribution
Try yourself:What are some factors that may influence migration?

## Demographic Transition

The demographic cycle refers to the sequence of stages a population undergoes as a society transitions from a pre-industrial to an industrialized and modern state.

### First Stage: Pre-Industrial

• High Fertility and Mortality: In the first stage, both fertility and mortality rates are high. People have more children to make up for deaths caused by epidemics and unstable food supply.
• Slow Population Growth: Due to high mortality, the overall population growth is slow.
• Agricultural Society: Most people work in agriculture, and large families are seen as valuable.
• Low Life Expectancy and Education: Life expectancy is low, and most people are illiterate with limited access to technology.
• Historical Context: Two hundred years ago, all countries around the world were in this stage.

### Second Stage: Early Industrial

• High Fertility: At the start of the second stage, fertility rates are high but gradually decrease over time.
• Reduced Mortality: Mortality rates drop due to better sanitation and improved health conditions.
• Population Growth: The gap between high fertility and reduced mortality leads to a significant increase in population.

### Third Stage: Mature Industrial

• Declining Fertility and Mortality: In the last stage, both fertility and mortality rates drop significantly.
• Stable or Slow Population Growth: The population becomes stable or grows at a slow pace.
• Urbanization and Education: People live mostly in urban areas, are literate, and possess high levels of technical knowledge.
• Family Planning: Families intentionally control their size, choosing to have fewer children.

## Population Control Measures

• Family planning involves spacing or preventing the birth of children, crucial for limiting population growth and improving women’s health.
• Effective measures for population control include propaganda, free availability of contraceptives, and tax disincentives for large families.
• Thomas Malthus (1798) theorized that population would outpace food supply, leading to crises like famine, disease, and war.
• Preventive checks (e.g., birth control) are preferable to physical checks (e.g., famine) for managing population growth.
• Controlling population growth is essential for the sustainability of resources and preventing overstrain on the environment.

## Conclusion

Population distribution and growth patterns reveal significant insights into human settlement and resource use. As societies evolve and face new challenges, managing population density and controlling growth through measures like family planning and addressing push and pull factors will be essential for sustainable development and improving living conditions worldwide.

The document The World Population Distribution Class 12 Geography is a part of the CTET & State TET Course NCERT Textbooks (Class 6 to Class 12).
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## FAQs on The World Population Distribution Class 12 Geography

 1. What are some factors influencing the distribution of population around the world?
Ans. Factors influencing population distribution include geographical features, climate, resources, economic opportunities, political stability, and cultural factors.
 2. What is demographic transition and how does it impact population growth?
Ans. Demographic transition refers to the process of a society moving from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. This transition usually leads to a decrease in population growth as birth rates decrease.
 3. What are some population control measures that countries implement to manage their population growth?
Ans. Population control measures include family planning programs, education on reproductive health, incentives for smaller families, access to contraceptives, and policies to promote gender equality.
 4. How does population density affect the quality of life for individuals living in densely populated areas?
Ans. High population density can lead to issues such as overcrowding, increased competition for resources, higher levels of pollution, and strain on infrastructure, which can impact the quality of life for individuals in these areas.
 5. How does the pattern of population distribution impact social and economic development in different regions of the world?
Ans. The pattern of population distribution can influence factors such as workforce availability, market size, infrastructure development, and cultural diversity, which in turn can affect social and economic development in different regions of the world.

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