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Class 10 History Chapter 4 Question Answers - The Age of Industrialisation

Q.1. Give two examples of modern development associated with progress but which also led to problems.

Ans.

(i) Environment : The phenomenon called the global warming is a direct product of excessive emission of chlorofluorocarbons and other harmful gases, including burning of fossil fuels (coal, petrol, shale oil) which supply nearly 90% of all the energy used by industrially developed nations. This will cause large-scale natural destruction by rising oceans and pollution.Class 10 History Chapter 4 Question Answers - The Age of Industrialisation

(ii) Nuclear weapons and diseases : Nuclear weapons are mankind’s worst invention in the name of progress, as witnessed in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  Japan during the Second World War. Its after effects are even worse with long-term consequences of radiation and diseases.


Q.2. Explain why the seventeenth century merchants from towns in Europe began employing peasants and artisans within the village.

Ans. Merchants preferred employing peasants and artisans within the village because it was difficult to open new businesses in towns and cities where the guilds were very much organised. They restricted new merchants and regulated their competition. Therefore, they preferred the countryside to set up new businesses. The relationship between the new merchants and farmers were closer even though they lived in different environments.


Q.3. Describe the nexus of merchants and cotton textile producers in proto-industry.

Ans. In the proto-industrial stage, cotton was produced in the following ways:
(i) Merchant clothier bought wool from stapler, the person who sorted wool according to its fibres.
(ii) Then he took the wool to spinners to produce spun yarns.
(iii) Yarn (threads) were finally given to the weavers for weaving and the fullers who gathered cloths by pleating and finally sent to dyers for colouring.
As a result, a close relationship between town and countryside developed in which a network of commercial exchange existed between merchants and farmers.


Q.4. Give reasons for the increase in production of cotton textile.

Ans. Reasons for increase in cotton textiles were :
(i) Inventions of eighteenth century, e.g. cotton mill by Richard Arkwright.
(ii) Enhanced output per worker by machines like cotton mills.
(iii) Quality products with stronger threads, etc.
(iv) Maintenance of Mills made easier if located in one place.
(v) Efficient management due to regulations.


Q.5. What do you understand by the term “Industrial Revolution”?

Ans. Industrial Revolution is the period in history when production process was changed from manual to mechanised one due to many technological inventions and building of infrastructure. It is said to have begun in England and spread to other European nations in different times and degrees. The invention of cotton mill or factory system, spinning jenny, steam engine, telegraphs and railways, etc, brought Industrial Revolution in Europe. It spread to other parts of the world much later.

Industrial RevolutionIndustrial Revolution

Q.6. Discuss the changes brought by the age of industries in India giving appropriate examples.

Ans. The age of industries brought major technological changes, growth of factories and the making of new industrial labour forces. Indian industries grew out of the necessities and as a consequence of the colonial economy. For example, Europeans who invested on cash crops (tea, jute, cotton) and minerals like coal, copper, etc, needed railways. Therefore, steam-run trains were introduced connecting different parts of India. Then, telegraphs were also introduced for communication and security reasons. During the war time, India benefited by getting some concessions and protection from the government. The industries also diversified in their products especially due to war needs.

The document Class 10 History Chapter 4 Question Answers - The Age of Industrialisation is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Class 10 History Chapter 4 Question Answers - The Age of Industrialisation

1. What was the impact of industrialization on the working class in the Age of Industrialisation?
Ans. The impact of industrialization on the working class was both positive and negative. On one hand, industrialization provided job opportunities for the working class, leading to urbanization and the growth of cities. It also brought technological advancements and improved living standards for some workers. On the other hand, working conditions were often harsh, with long working hours, low wages, and unsafe working environments. Workers faced exploitation and lived in overcrowded and unsanitary conditions.
2. How did industrialization affect the environment during the Age of Industrialisation?
Ans. Industrialization had a significant negative impact on the environment during the Age of Industrialisation. The rapid growth of industries led to increased pollution, including air and water pollution. Factories emitted harmful gases and chemicals, leading to respiratory problems and pollution-related diseases. The burning of fossil fuels for energy contributed to global warming and climate change. Deforestation also occurred as industries required large quantities of wood for fuel and raw materials.
3. What were the major inventions and technological innovations during the Age of Industrialisation?
Ans. The Age of Industrialisation witnessed several major inventions and technological innovations. Some of the notable ones include the steam engine, which revolutionized transportation and powered factories; the spinning jenny and power loom, which mechanized textile production; the telegraph, which improved communication over long distances; and the steam-powered locomotive, which transformed the railway industry. These inventions played a crucial role in driving industrialization and shaping the modern world.
4. How did the Age of Industrialisation impact social hierarchies and class divisions?
Ans. The Age of Industrialisation brought significant changes to social hierarchies and class divisions. It led to the rise of a new social class, the bourgeoisie, who were the owners of the means of production and accumulated wealth through industrialization. This resulted in the widening gap between the bourgeoisie and the working class or proletariat, who faced exploitation and struggled for better working conditions and rights. The industrial revolution also led to the decline of traditional agrarian societies and the emergence of urban industrial societies.
5. What were the major challenges faced by governments during the Age of Industrialisation?
Ans. Governments faced several major challenges during the Age of Industrialisation. One of the key challenges was regulating and controlling the working conditions and rights of the growing working class. Governments had to address issues such as child labor, unsafe working conditions, and long working hours through legislation and labor reforms. Another challenge was the need to balance economic growth with social welfare and address issues of poverty and inequality. Governments also had to deal with social unrest and protests by workers demanding better rights and living conditions.
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