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NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 - Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Q1. Choose the right answer from the four alternatives given below:

(i) To which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber belong to?
(a) Tundra 
(b) Tidal
(c) Himalayan
(d) Tropical Evergreen
Ans: (d) Tropical Evergreen


(ii) Cinchona trees are found in the areas of rainfall more than
(a) 100 cm 
(b) 50 cm
(c) 70 cm
(d) less than 50 cm
Ans: (a) 100 cm


(iii) In which of the following state is the Simlipal bio-reserve located?
(a) Punjab
(b) Delhi
(c) Odisha
(d) West Bengal

Ans: (c) Odisha


(iv) Which one of the following bio-reserves of India is not included in the world network of bioreserve?
(a) Manas
(b) Nilgiri
(c) Gulf of Mannar
(d) Nanda Devi

Ans: (a) Manas


Q2. Answer the following questions briefly.

(i) What is a bio-reserve? Give two examples.
Ans: Bio-reserves are the large areas where vegetation, wildlife and the environment are conserved to preserve the biological diversity. In totality there are 14 bio-reserves in India. For e.g. Sunderbans Bio-reserve in West Bengal and Nanda Devi Bio-reserve in Uttaranchal.


(ii) Name two animals having habitat in tropical and montane type of vegetation.
Ans: The common animals found in the tropical forests are elephants and monkeys and the common animals found in the montane forests are Kashmir stag and spotted dear.


Q3. Distinguish between

(i) Flora and Fauna
Ans: The word ‘flora’ is used to denote plants of a particular region or period and the species of animals are referred to as ‘fauna’.

Flora and Fauna: ComparisonFlora and Fauna: Comparison

(ii) Tropical Evergreen and Deciduous Forests
Ans: Tropical Evergreen Forests:

  • Rainfall is very heavy, over 200 cm of rain.
  • Forests appear green all year round as the trees shed their leaves at different times of the year.
  • Vegetation is luxuriant, multilayered, and of great variety.
  • Commercially important trees are ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber, and cinchona.
  • Trees are tall and have straight trunks.

Deciduous Forests:

  • They are also known as Monsoon Forests.
  • These are found where the rainfall is between 70 cm - 200 cm.
  • Trees shed their leaves for about 6-8 weeks in the dry summer.
  • These forests are divided into Dry and Wet Deciduous Forests.
  • Wet Deciduous Forests are found in the northeast states, foothills of the Himalayas, Jharkhand, West Odisha, Chhattisgarh, and the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats. Important trees are bamboos, sal, shisham, Khair, Arjun, etc.
  • Dry Deciduous Forests are found in the plains of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and the rainier parts of the Deccan plateau. Important trees are teak, sal, peepal, and neem. Trees have been cleared in some parts for cultivation and for grazing.


Q4. Name different types of vegetation found in India and describe the vegetation of high altitudes.
Ans: The different types of vegetation found in India are:

  • Tropical Evergreen Forests
  • Tropical Deciduous Forests
  • Tropical Thorn Forests and Scrubs
  • Montane Forests
  • Mangrove Forests

In mountainous areas, the decrease in temperature with increasing altitude leads to the corresponding change in natural vegetation:

  • The foothills of the Himalayas, Shiwaliks, have tropical moist deciduous flora. Sal and bamboo are important trees.NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 - Natural Vegetation and Wildlife
  • They are followed by the wet hill forests. They lie between about 1,000 to 2,000 m. Important trees are oak, chestnut, ash, birch, etc.
  • Between 1,500 and 3,300 m above sea level, there occur the well-known coniferous forests. Pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce, etc., are some dominant trees.
  • Above the coniferous forests lie the alpine forests at an altitude of about 3,600 m. Important trees are silver fir, pine, birch, etc. Alpine vegetation is found at places over 3,600 m in height. The trees common to these are silver fir, junipers, pines, and birches. 
  • They get stunted as they approach the show-line. Through shrubs and scrubs, they ultimately merge into the Alpine grasslands. Tundra vegetation is limited to lichens and mosses.


Q5. Quite a few species of plants and animals are endangered in India. Why?
Ans:
Many plants and animals are endangered in India due to a number of reasons:

  • Hunting of animals for commercial purposes.
  • Pollution due to chemical and industrial waste, acid deposits.
  • Introduction of alien species.
  • Reckless cutting of the forests to bring land under cultivation and inhabitation.

As a result of these activities about 1300 plant species are endangered and 20 plant species have become extinct. Quite a few animal species are also endangered.

Q6. Why has India a rich heritage of flora and fauna?
Ans: India has a rich heritage of flora and fauna due to the following reasons:

  • India is a diverse country with various relief features (i.e. mountains, plateaus, plains, etc.) These regions consist of different types of vegetation that support different types of animals.
  • There is the availability of different types of soil which facilitates a base for different types of vegetation.
  • There is variation in the climatic conditions of India (Temperature, humidity, etc.). It differs from north to south and east to west. Thus, supporting a large variety of flora and fauna.
  • India has a monsoon type of climate where rainfall varies from 20 cms to 300 cms distributed throughout the year, supporting a large amount of flora and fauna.
  • Variation in the duration of sunlight at different places due to differences in latitude and altitude.


Map Skills

Q. On an outline map of India, label the following.
(i) Areas of Evergreen Forests 
(ii) Areas of Dry Deciduous Forests 
(iii) Two national parks each in Northern, Southern, Eastern and Western parts of the Country
Ans: The outline of India’s map is given below with the labelling of the above -mentioned areas.
NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 - Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

The document NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 - Natural Vegetation and Wildlife is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
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FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Geography Chapter 5 - Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

1. What is natural vegetation and why is it important?
Ans. Natural vegetation refers to the plant life that grows without human interference in a particular region. It includes forests, grasslands, shrubs, and other types of vegetation. Natural vegetation is important for various reasons. It helps in maintaining the ecological balance by providing habitat for wildlife, preventing soil erosion, and regulating the water cycle. It also contributes to the production of oxygen, acts as a carbon sink, and provides resources for various industries such as timber, medicine, and food.
2. What are the factors influencing the distribution of natural vegetation?
Ans. The distribution of natural vegetation is influenced by several factors. These factors include climate, topography, soil type, and human activities. Climate plays a significant role in determining the type of vegetation that can thrive in a particular area. For example, tropical rainforests are found in regions with high temperatures and rainfall, while deserts are found in arid regions with low precipitation. Topography affects the availability of sunlight and water, which in turn affects the growth of vegetation. Soil type determines the nutrients available for plants, and different types of vegetation have different soil requirements. Human activities such as deforestation and urbanization can also significantly impact the distribution of natural vegetation.
3. What are the major types of natural vegetation found in India?
Ans. India is known for its rich biodiversity and diverse natural vegetation. The major types of natural vegetation found in India include Tropical Rainforests, Deciduous Forests, Thorn Forests and Scrubs, Alpine Vegetation, and Mangrove Forests. Tropical rainforests are found in the Western Ghats, the northeastern states, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Deciduous forests are widespread in the northern plains, central India, and the eastern coast. Thorn forests and scrubs are found in the arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan and Gujarat. Alpine vegetation is found in the higher altitudes of the Himalayas. Mangrove forests are found in the coastal areas of the Sundarbans in West Bengal and parts of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Odisha.
4. How does deforestation affect natural vegetation and wildlife?
Ans. Deforestation, the clearing of forests for various purposes, has a detrimental impact on natural vegetation and wildlife. When forests are cut down, it disrupts the natural ecosystem and leads to the loss of habitat for many plant and animal species. Deforestation also reduces the availability of food and resources for wildlife, causing a decline in their populations. It disrupts the water cycle, increases soil erosion, and contributes to climate change. Deforestation also results in the loss of biodiversity and can lead to the extinction of certain plant and animal species. It is essential to protect and conserve forests to maintain the balance of natural vegetation and wildlife.
5. What are the measures taken to conserve natural vegetation and wildlife?
Ans. Various measures have been taken to conserve natural vegetation and wildlife. These include the establishment of national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves. These protected areas help in preserving the natural habitats of plants and animals. Strict laws and regulations have been implemented to prevent illegal activities such as poaching, hunting, and deforestation. Afforestation and reforestation programs have been initiated to increase the forest cover and restore degraded areas. Awareness campaigns and educational programs are conducted to promote sustainable practices and raise public consciousness about the importance of conserving natural vegetation and wildlife. International agreements and collaborations are also in place to address global issues related to biodiversity conservation.
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