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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 - Power sharing

Q1. What are the different forms of power-sharing in modern democracies? Give an example of each of these.
Ans: 
Different forms of power-sharing in modern democracies:
(i) Power shared among different organs of the government

  • In it, power is shared among the Legislature, Executive and the Judiciary.
  • It is also called horizontal distribution of power because all these organs are placed at the same level.
  • Such separation ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited powers.
  • Each organ checks the other, which results in the balance of power among various institutions.

(ii) Power shared among Governments at different levels

  • There is a Government for the entire country, such a Government is called Federal Government.
  • In India, we refer to it as Central or Union Government.
  • The Government at the provincial or regional level is called State Government in India.
  • In India Government is divided at the central level, state level and local level.
  • It is called a vertical division of power as power is divided among higher and lower levels of governments.

(iii) Power shared among different social groups

  • This type of arrangement is made to give space in the Government and administration to diverse social groups who otherwise feel alienated from the Government.
  • This method is used to give minority communities a fair share of power.
  • In India, we have a system of reserved constituencies in the Assemblies and in the Parliament.
  • Community Government in Belgium is a good example.

(iv) Power shared among political parties, pressure groups, and moments:

  • In a democracy, the citizen must have the freedom to choose among various contenders for power.
  • When there is competition, it ensures that power does not remain in one hand.
  • In the long run, power is shared among different political parties that represent different ideologies and social groups. This type of Government is called the ‘Coalition Government’.
  • Many interest groups like traders, businessmen, farmers, industrial workers, also have a share in governmental power either way, through participation and influencing the decision-making process.NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 - Power sharing

Q2. State one prudential reason and one moral reason for power-sharing with an example from the Indian context.
Ans: 
(i) Prudential Reason

  • It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups. 
  • It brings out better outcomes
    Example: In India seats in the Parliament and assemblies have been reserved for weaker sections.

(ii) Moral Reason

  • It is the spirit of democracy. 
  • All people should be consulted in a democracy.
  • In India, people elect their representatives after every five years or earlier.


Q3. After reading this chapter, three students drew different conclusions. Which of these do you agree with and why? Give your reasons in about 50 words.

  • Thomman  Power sharing is necessary only in societies which have religious, linguistic or ethnic divisions.
  • Mathai  Power sharing is suitable only for big countries that have regional divisions.
  • Ouseph  Every society needs some form of power sharing even if it is small or does not have social divisions.

Ans: 

  • The conclusion drawn by Ouseph is correct. 
  • Every society needs some form of power-sharing. 
  • In a family, the members may differ but power-sharing may resolve differences.
  • In a society too different communities should try to accommodate each other as has been done in Belgium where the French-speaking people accepted equal representation in Brussels because the Dutch-speaking community has accepted equal representation in the central government.

Q4. The Mayor of Merchtem, a town near Brussels in Belgium, has defended a ban on speaking French in the town’s schools. He said that the ban would help all non-Dutch speakers integrate into this Flemish town. Do you think that this measure is in keeping with the spirit of Belgium’s power-sharing arrangements? Give your reasons in about 50 words.
Ans:

  • The ban is not in keeping with the spirit of Belgium’s power-sharing arrangements.
  • It is an example of the imposition of the will of the majority on the minority which is against the principle of accommodation.
  • The ban may result in strained relations between different communities i.e., French-speaking and Dutch-speaking in Belgium.

Q5. Read the following passage and pick out any one of the prudential reasons for power sharing offered in this.
"We need to give more power to the panchayats to realize the dream of Mahatma Gandhi and the hopes of the makers of our Constitution. Panchayati Raj establishes true democracy. It restores power to the only place where power belongs in a democracy in the hands of the people. Given power to panchayats is also a way to reduce corruption and increase administrative efficiency. When people participate in the planning and implementation of developmental schemes, they would naturally exercise greater control over these schemes. This would eliminate the corrupt middlemen. Thus, Panchayati Raj will strengthen the foundations of our democracy."
Ans:

  • Panchayati Raj establishes true democracy.
  • It restores power to the people.
  • It reduces corruption and increases administrative efficiency.
  • People control over development schemes.
  • It will strengthen the foundations of democracy.

Q6. Different arguments are usually put forth in favor of and against power-sharing. Identify those which are in favor of power-sharing and select the answer using the codes given below? Power-sharing:
A. reduces conflict among different communities
B. decreases the possibility of arbitrariness
C. delays the decision-making process
D. accommodates diversities
E. increases instability and divisiveness
F. promotes people’s participation in government
G.
 undermines the unity of a country

(a)

A

B

D

F

(b)

A

C

E

F

(c)

A

B

D

G

(d)

B

C

D

G

Ans: (a)

Q7. Consider the following statements about power-sharing arrangements in Belgium and Sri Lanka.
Α. In Belgium, the Dutch-speaking majority of people tried to impose their domination on the minority French-speaking community.
B. In Sri Lanka, the policies of the government sought to ensure the dominance of the Sinhala-speaking majority.
C. The Tamils in Sri Lanka demanded a federal arrangement of power-sharing to protect their culture, language and equality of opportunity in education and jobs.
D. The transformation of Belgium from a unitary government to a federal one prevented a possible division of the country on linguistic lines.

Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) ABC and D
(b) AB and D
(c) C and D
(d) BC and D
Ans: (d)

Q8. Match List I (forms of power-sharing) with List-II (forms of government) and select the correct answer using the codes given below in the lists:

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 - Power sharing

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 - Power sharing

Ans:

 

1

2

3

4

(c)

B

D

A

C


Q9. Consider the following two statements on power sharing and select the answer using the codes given below:
1. Power-sharing is good for democracy.
2. It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.
Which of these statements are true and false?

(a) A is true and B is false
(b) Both A and B are true
(c) Both A and B are false
(d) A is false but B is true
Ans: (b)
Sol: Features of power-sharing are as follows:

  • Power-sharing reduces the possibility of conflicts between social groups.
  • Power-sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order.
  • Power-sharing is the spirit of democracy.
  • Power-sharing is good for democracy.
The document NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 - Power sharing is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 1 - Power sharing

1. What is power-sharing?
Ans. Power-sharing is a political arrangement in which power is shared among different groups in a society. It can take various forms, such as sharing of power between two or more political parties, sharing of power between different regions or communities, or sharing of power between different organs of government.
2. What are the advantages of power-sharing?
Ans. Power-sharing has several advantages. Firstly, it helps to reduce conflicts and promote peace and stability in society. Secondly, it ensures that the interests of all sections of society are represented in the decision-making process. Thirdly, it helps to prevent the domination of one group over others and promotes inclusiveness. Fourthly, it encourages cooperation and collaboration among different groups in society.
3. What are the different forms of power-sharing?
Ans. There are different forms of power-sharing. Horizontal power-sharing involves sharing power among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive, and judiciary. Vertical power-sharing involves sharing power between the central government and state governments. Social power-sharing involves sharing power among different communities or social groups. Consociational power-sharing involves sharing power among different ethnic or linguistic groups.
4. How does power-sharing promote democracy?
Ans. Power-sharing is an essential element of democracy. In a democracy, power is distributed among different organs of government and different social groups to ensure that no single group or individual can exercise unchecked power. Power-sharing promotes inclusiveness and ensures that the interests of all sections of society are represented in the decision-making process. It also encourages cooperation and collaboration among different groups in society.
5. What are the challenges to power-sharing?
Ans. Power-sharing is not without its challenges. One of the challenges is that it can lead to a lack of accountability and responsibility, with each group blaming the other for failures and shortcomings. Another challenge is that it can lead to a lack of decisive action in times of crisis, as different groups may have different priorities and agendas. Power-sharing can also be difficult to implement in societies that are deeply divided along ethnic, linguistic, or religious lines.
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