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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 3 - Gender, Religion and Caste

Q1. Mention different aspects of life in which women are discriminated or disadvantaged in India.
Ans: The different aspects of life in which women are discriminated or disadvantaged in India are:
(i) There are sex-selective abortions in India. A girl child is aborted due to the preference of a male child among several Indian parents and the assumption that a girl child will be a burden on the economic wealth of the parents. The sex ratio in India is 927 girls to every 1000 boys who have fallen to even 800:1000 in some parts of India.
(ii) The literacy rate of women is only 54% as compared to 76% among men in India. Many girls in India tend to leave their education midway because economically weak parents prefer to spend their money on the education of their son as compared to that of their daughter. Also, money that can be invested for the education of a daughter is rather saved for her dowry and marriage.
(iii) Women form a small portion among highly paid and valued jobs. Many girls are not able to pursue higher education in India due to early marriage, inaccessibility to higher education institutes or lack of money to pursue higher education. Therefore they do not have the qualification to apply for high paying jobs.
(iv) There are instances of sexual harassment and domestic violence against women which deters the formation of a supportive environment for a woman to pursue her ambitions and fulfil her dreams as per potential. Their conditions are created due to the assumption of women being physically weaker, lack of protection from state agencies such as police and structure of the patriarchal society.

Q2. State different forms of communal politics with one example each.
Ans: Different forms of communal politics:
(a) The expression of communal superiority in everyday beliefs
Militant religious groups are a good example of this.
(b) The desire to form a majoritarian dominance or a separate state
Separatist leaders and political parties in Jammu and Kashmir and Central India are an example of this.
(c) The use of religious symbols and leaders in politics to appeal to the voters
This technique is applied by many politicians to influence voters from the two largest religious communities in the country.
(d) In addition to all this, communal politics can take the form of communal violence and riots, like the riots in Gujarat in 2002.

Q3. State how caste inequalities are still continuing in India.
Ans: caste inequalities are still continuing in India in the following ways:
(i) Most people still marry within their own caste or tribe. The upper caste people or sometimes other caste people to do not allow inter-caste marriages.
(ii) Untouchability has been prohibited by the Constitution but in practice it still exists in different parts of the country, particularly in rural areas.
(iii) In the field of education to the position is far from satisfactory. The caste groups that had access to education under the old system have done very well in acquiring modern education as well. But those groups who did not have access to education or were prohibited from acquiring it have naturally lagged behind.
(iv) Caste is still an important source of economic inequality because it regulates access to resources of various kinds. While the upper classes are best off, the Dalits and Adivasis are worst off, and the backward classes are in between.
(v) Although every caste has some poor members, the proportion of living in extreme poverty is much higher for the lowest castes. Lower caste people like rural landless labourers are generally poor and are exploited even today. The percentage of the population living below the poverty line between 1999-2000 was 45.8% (STs) 35.9%, (SCs) and 27% (OBCs) in the rural areas.

Q4. State two reasons to say that caste alone cannot determine election results in India.
Ans: Caste alone cannot determine election results in India because:

  • No parliamentary constituency has a clear majority of one single caste.
  • No party wins all the votes of a particular caste.


Q5. What is the status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies?
Ans: The status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies is very less as mentioned below:
(а) In Lok Sabha, the percentage of elected women members has never reached even 10 per cent of its total strength.
(b) Their share in the state assemblies is less than 5 per cent. India is among the bottom group of nations in the world in this respect.
(c) Thus the proportion of women in legislative bodies has been very low. Women’s organisations and activists have been demanding reservation of at least one-third of seats in the Lok Sabha and State Assemblies for women. A bill with this proposal has been pending before the parliament for more than a decade but due to lack of consensus among the political parties, it has not been passed.

Q6. Mention any two constitutional provisions that make India a secular state.
Ans: Two constitutional provisions that make India a secular state are:

  • The Constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion, or not to follow any.
  • The Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.

Secular IndiaSecular India


Q7. When we speak of gender divisions, we usually refer to:
(a) Biological difference between men and women
(b) Unequal roles assigned by the society to men and women
(c) Unequal child sex ratio
(d) Absence of voting rights for women in democracies
Ans: (b) Unequal roles assigned by the society to men and women

Unequal Roles AssignedUnequal Roles Assigned


Q8. In India, seats are reserved for women in
(a) Lok Sabha
(b) State Legislative Assemblies
(c) Cabinets
(d) Panchayati Raj bodies
Ans: (d) Panchayati Raj bodies

Panchayati Raj BodiesPanchayati Raj Bodies

Q9. Consider the following statements on the meaning of communal politics. Communal politics is based on the belief that:
Α. One religion is superior to that of others.
Β. People belonging to different religions can live together happily as equal citizens.
C. Followers of a particular religion constitute one community.
D. State power cannot be used to establish the domination of one religious group over others.
Which of the statements is/are correct?
(a) A, B, C and D
(b) A, B and D
(c) A and C
(d) B and D
Ans: (c) A and C

Q10. Which among the following statements about India’s Constitution is wrong? It
(a) prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion
(b) gives official status to one religion
(c) provides to all individuals freedom to profess any religion
(d) ensures equality of citizens within religious communities
Ans: (b) gives official status to one religion

Q11. Social divisions based on ______________ are peculiar to India.
Ans: Social divisions based on caste are peculiar to India.

 CasteCaste


Q12. Match List I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists:

 

List I

 

List II

1.

A person who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and men

Α.

Communalist

2.

A person who says that religion is the principal basis of community

Β.

Feminist

3.

A person who thinks that caste is the principal basis of community

C.

Secularist

4.

A person who does not discriminate others on the basis of religious beliefs

D.

Castiel



1

2

3

4

(a)

B

C

A

D

(b)

B

A

D

C

(c)

D

C

A

B

(d)

C

A

B

D

Ans: (b) B, A, D, C is the correct answer.

The document NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 3 - Gender, Religion and Caste is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Civics Chapter 3 - Gender, Religion and Caste

1. How does gender impact society?
Ans. Gender plays a significant role in shaping society. It influences social norms, roles, and expectations assigned to individuals based on their sex. Gender determines the division of labor, power dynamics, and opportunities available to men and women. It can lead to gender inequality, discrimination, and the marginalization of certain groups. Understanding and challenging gender stereotypes and biases is crucial for creating a more equitable and inclusive society.
2. What is the relationship between religion and caste in India?
Ans. In India, religion and caste are deeply intertwined. The caste system, which is a hierarchical social structure based on hereditary occupations, is closely linked to Hinduism. Each caste is associated with specific religious rituals and practices. Religion often reinforces and perpetuates caste divisions, leading to discrimination and the denial of basic rights to individuals from lower castes. However, it is important to note that not all religions in India follow the caste system, and movements for social justice and equality are challenging these traditional hierarchies.
3. How do gender, religion, and caste intersect in Indian society?
Ans. Gender, religion, and caste intersect in complex ways in Indian society. Women from lower castes often face multiple forms of oppression and discrimination due to their gender and caste identity. They may experience limited access to education, healthcare, and economic opportunities, as well as higher rates of violence and exploitation. Similarly, religious practices and beliefs can reinforce gender and caste hierarchies, further marginalizing certain groups. Recognizing these intersections is crucial for addressing the intersecting forms of discrimination and working towards social justice.
4. How does religion influence gender roles and expectations?
Ans. Religion often plays a significant role in shaping and reinforcing gender roles and expectations. Many religious traditions have prescribed gender-specific roles and responsibilities, which can limit opportunities and freedoms for individuals. For example, some religions may promote the idea of women as caregivers and homemakers, while men are expected to be providers and leaders. These gender norms can perpetuate inequality and restrict individuals from fully participating in social, economic, and political spheres. However, it is important to note that interpretations of religious texts and teachings can vary, and there are progressive movements within religions that challenge traditional gender roles.
5. What are the impacts of caste discrimination on marginalized communities?
Ans. Caste discrimination has severe impacts on marginalized communities in India. Individuals belonging to lower castes face social exclusion, economic disadvantages, and limited access to resources and opportunities. They often experience discrimination in education, employment, housing, and healthcare. Caste-based violence and atrocities are prevalent, perpetuating a cycle of oppression and marginalization. Efforts to address caste discrimination include affirmative action policies, legal protections, and social movements advocating for equal rights and opportunities for all castes.
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