Stone | Civil Engineering SSC JE (Technical) - Civil Engineering (CE) PDF Download

Chapter 9
STONES
Classification of Rocks: Building stones are obtained from rocks occurring in nature and classified in three ways.

1. Geological classification
2. Physical classification
3. Chemical classification

1. Geological classification: According to this classification, the rocks are of the following types.

(a) Igneous rocks: Rocks that are formed by cooling of Magma (Molten or pasty rocky material) are known as igneous rocks. Eg. Granite, Basalt and Dolerite etc.
Stone | Civil Engineering SSC JE (Technical) - Civil Engineering (CE)

(b) Sedimentary rocks: These rocks are formed by the deposition of production of weathering on the pre-existing rocks. Eg. Gravel, sandstone, limestone, gypsum, lignite etc.
Stone | Civil Engineering SSC JE (Technical) - Civil Engineering (CE)

(c) Metamorphic rocks: These rocks are formed by the change in character of the pre-existing rocks. Igneous as well as sedimentary rocks are changed in character when they are subjected to great heat and pressure, known as metamorphism. eg: Quartzite, Schist, Slate, Marble and Gneisses.

Stone | Civil Engineering SSC JE (Technical) - Civil Engineering (CE)

Question for Stone
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Which type of rock is formed by the cooling of magma?
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2. Physical Classification: This classification is based on general structure of rocks. According to this, the rocks are classified into three types.

(a) Stratified Rocks: These rocks possess planes of stratification or cleavage and such rocks can be easily split along these planes.
Stone | Civil Engineering SSC JE (Technical) - Civil Engineering (CE)

(b) An stratified rock: The structure may be crystalline granular or compact granular. Example: igneous rocks and Sedimentary rocks affected by movements of the earth.

(c) Foliated Rocks: These rocks have a tendency to split up in a definite direction only. Ex: Metamorphic rocks.

3. Chemical Classification: According to this classification rocks are classified into three types. 

(a) Siliceous rocks: In these rocks, silica is predominates. The rocks are hard, durable and not easily affected by weathering agencies. Ex. Granite, Quartzite, etc.

(b) Argillaceous rocks: In these rocks clay predominates. The rocks may be dense and compact or may be soft. Ex: Slates, Laterites etc.

(c) Calcareous rocks: In these rocks, calcium carbonate predominates. The durability of these rocks will depend upon the constituents present in surrounding atmosphere. Ex: Lime stone, marble etc.

Question for Stone
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Which type of rocks possess planes of stratification or cleavage and can be easily split along these planes?
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GRANITE :
1. Igneous rock
2. Composed of quart, feldspar and mica and mineral
3. Available in grey, green brown and pink and red
4. Hard and durable
5. High resistance to weathering
6. The texture varies with its quality
7. Specific gravity: 2.7 and compressive strength: 700 to 1300 kg/cm
8. Used for ornamental, road metal, railway, ballast, aggregate for concrete; for construction of bridges, piers and marine work etc.

BALLAST:
1. Igneous rock
2. It is compact, hard and heavy
3. Available in red, yellow grey, blue and greenish black colours.
4. Specific gravity is 3 and compressive strength varies 1530 to 1890 kg/cm2.
5. Used for ornamental, rail road ballast, aggregates for concrete etc.

SAND STONE:
1. Sedimentary rock
2. it is available in variety of formations fine grained, coarse grained compact or porous
3. Available in white, green blue, black, red yellow.
4. Specific gravity 2.65 to 2.95
5. Compressive strength is 650 kgs/cm2
6. Used for ashlar works.

Question for Stone
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What is the specific gravity of granite?
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Lime Stone: 
1. Sedimentary rock: It is available in a variety of forms which differ from one another in colour, Compaction texture, hardness and durability.
a. Compact lime durable
b. Granular lime stone
c. Magnesia lime stone
d. Kanker limestone
e. Used for paving, road metal, etc.

MARBLE:
1.Metamorphic rock
2.Available in white, blue, green yellow black and red colour
3.High compactness.
4.Suitable for decorative works, wall lining columns, pile, table slabs, hearths, tiled floors, steps of stair case etc.

SLATE:
1. Metamorphic rock
2. Non absorbent, compact fine grained and produce metallic ringing sound when struck
3. Available in black, dark blue, grey, reddish brown etc.
4. Used for providing damp proof course, paving dados etc.

By arbitrary standards: it is a commonly adopted method of propitiating the aggregates in a concrete mix for small of moderate importance. This method is not recommended for large works or important woks in this method, the volume of cement, sand and coarse aggregates are taken in the proportion of 1 : n : 2n respectively.
The quantity of water to be used a varied suit the workability described.
Ex:
1 : 1 : 2 – M 250 rich mix for columns, beams
1 : 1 : 3 – M 200 water retaining structures etc
1 : 3 : 6 – M 100 – foundations,
1 : 4 : 8 – For mass concrete

The document Stone | Civil Engineering SSC JE (Technical) - Civil Engineering (CE) is a part of the Civil Engineering (CE) Course Civil Engineering SSC JE (Technical).
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Ans. Frequent handwashing is crucial during the COVID-19 pandemic as it helps to eliminate the virus from our hands and prevents its transmission. The virus can be present on surfaces and objects, and by touching our face, eyes, nose, or mouth, we can unknowingly introduce the virus into our body. Regularly washing hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds or using hand sanitizers with at least 60% alcohol content can effectively remove the virus and reduce the risk of infection.
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Ans. Hand sanitizers with at least 60% alcohol content are effective in killing the COVID-19 virus on the hands. They can be used when soap and water are not readily available. However, soap and water are preferred as they not only kill the virus but also physically remove it from the hands. Hand sanitizers should be used when soap and water are not an option, but it is important to note that hand sanitizers are not as effective in removing dirt, grease, or certain chemicals as soap and water.
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Ans. To prevent COVID-19 transmission, it is recommended to wash hands frequently. This includes before and after certain activities such as preparing food, eating, caring for someone who is sick, treating a wound, or after using the restroom. Additionally, it is advisable to wash hands after being in public places, touching surfaces frequently touched by others, and after coughing, sneezing, or blowing your nose. Regularly washing hands throughout the day, especially when in contact with potentially contaminated surfaces, can help reduce the risk of contracting the virus.
4. Can I use hand dryers to dry my hands after washing them?
Ans. Hand dryers are generally safe to use after washing hands, but it is recommended to use disposable paper towels or air drying as a more hygienic option. Hand dryers can disperse small particles, including potential viruses, into the air, which may increase the risk of transmission. Disposable paper towels or air drying can effectively dry hands without creating an aerosol effect and are considered safer alternatives, especially in public places.
5. What should I do if soap and water are not available for handwashing?
Ans. If soap and water are not available, the use of hand sanitizers with at least 60% alcohol content is recommended. Hand sanitizers can effectively kill the COVID-19 virus on the hands when used correctly. Apply a sufficient amount of hand sanitizer to cover all surfaces of your hands and rub them together until dry. However, it is important to note that hand sanitizers are not as effective as soap and water in removing certain types of germs, such as chemicals or heavy dirt. When possible, prioritize handwashing with soap and water for thorough cleanliness.
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