|Table of contents
|What is the Respiratory System?
|Types of Respiration
|Human Respiratory System
|Mechanism of Breathing
|Respiration in Plants
Respiration is defined as a metabolic process wherein, the living cells of an organism obtains energy (in the form of ATP) by taking in oxygen and liberating carbon dioxide from the oxidation of complex organic substances.
There are two types of respiration:
Glucose (C6H12O6) + Oxygen (6O2) → Carbon dioxide (6CO2) + Water (6H2O)+ Energy (ATP)
It is a type of cellular respiration that takes place in the absence of oxygen to produce energy. The chemical equation for anaerobic respiration is
Glucose (C6H12O6) → Alcohol 2(C2H5OH) + Carbon dioxide 2(CO2) + Energy (ATP )
Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration
Difference between Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration
External nostrils → Nasal cavity → Pharynx → Larynx → Trachea → Bronchi → Bronchioles → Alveolar sacs.
The voice box is also called the larynx. It is an enlarged upper part of the trachea. Before puberty, the larynx is inconspicuous and similar in both sexes.
The lungs are a pair of spongy, highly elastic, solid and bag-like organs. They are roughly cone-shaped and situated in the thoracic cavity.
Inhalation is the intake of fresh air from outside into the alveoli of the lungs. It occurs by the expansion of the lungs which is brought about by enlargement of the thoracic cavity.
Inhalation involves the following steps:
The mechanism of breathing out of carbon dioxide is called exhalation.
Differences between Inspiration and Expiration
Location, structure and function of the Respiratory System
In terrestrial plants, gaseous exchange occurs through:
Stomata are small apertures found on the surface of the leaf. For the process of respiration, oxygen enters stomata by the process of diffusion and then into other cells of the leaf. When the concentration of CO2 increases inside the cells it is diffused out through stomata.
Respiration through Stomata
Lenticels are the opening in the bark of woody stems. They also serve as a place of gaseous exchange.
Respiration through Lenticels
Ploughing or tilling of the soil creates small air spaces around soil particles which provides the sources of oxygen for the roots.
Respiration through Roots
|1. What is the respiratory system?
|2. What are the types of respiration?
|3. What is the mechanism of breathing?
|4. How does respiration differ in plants and humans?
|5. What is the human respiratory system?