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Electrophile:

All electron-deficient atom or group of atoms are known as Electrophiles, the electrophile attacks at the electron-rich centre.

(a) all positively charged species are electrophiles.

H , NO2 , Br , Cl , etc. 

(b) The compound in which the octet of central atom is not complete

BF3, AlCl3, ZnCl2, etc. 

(c) all the compounds in which the central atom can expand its octet

SnCl4, SiCl4, etc.

(d) all polarising functional group are electrophiles as well as nuelophiles

Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

 Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

Nucleophile:

All electron rich compounds are nucleophiles and attack at the electron deficient centre.

(a) all negatively charged species

H-, Cl-, NO2-, Br-, CH3- etc.

(b) the compound in which the central atom has lone pair of electron.

NH3, H2O, Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET, Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET etc.

(c) all organometallic compounds are nucleophiles

R - Mgx, RLi, R2Cd. 

(d) The compound having p edensity, CH2 = CH2, etc.

Nucleophilicity:

The power of nucleophile is known as nucleophilicity .

→ The nucleophilicity of negative charge is greater than the nucleophilicity of lone pair

Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

→ If lone pair or -ve charge is present on the different atoms then less electronegativity, more will be the nucleophilicity.

Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET, Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET , Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET, Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

→ NH3 < PH3 < AsH3 < SbH3 < BiH(Nucleophilicity)

→ If -ve charge or lone pair of electron is present on the same atom then the less stable -ve charge will be the better nucleophile

Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET (nucleophilicity)

Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET 

 Activators & deactivators

The groups in benzene which show M effect or I effect increases the electron density on benzene it means they activate the ring towards electrophile and known as activator.

 

Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET, Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET, -CH3, -OR, -NHMe, Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET, Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

The groups which shows -M or -I effect (resultant) decreases the e- density from benzene ring. It means they deactivate the ring towards electrophile.

 

Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET, Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET, Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET, Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET, Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

 

Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET, Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET, Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET etc.


Ortho, Para & meta director:

The groups which shows +I (resultant) or +M effect then negative charge is developed at the ortho & para position. Therefore electrophile attack at the ortho & para position and the groups are known as OP director.

Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

 

Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

The groups which shows -M effect or - I effect (resultant) then -ve charge is developed at the ortho & para position this means electron density is minimum at the ortho & para positions and electrophile will attack at the meta position the groups are known as meta director.

Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

 

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Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET


Heat of hydrogenation(H.O.H)

It is the amount of energy released when one mole of H2 is added to any unsaturated system.

CH2 = CH2 + H2 → CH3 - CH3 

HOH is exothermic process DH = - ve 

*HOH ≈ No. of p-bonds in compound

If no. of p-bonds is same then

*HOH ≈ Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

In case of alkene,

**Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

 

Ex. a Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

b Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

c Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

b > c > a

 

Energy

 

Electrophiles & Nucleophiles | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET


 

Some examples of Aromatic(A), Non-aromatic(NA) and Anti-aromatic(AA)

It decides the stability of the compound and the heat of hydrogenation as well. Aromatic compounds are more stable and having less heat of Hydrogenation.

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FAQs on Electrophiles & Nucleophiles - Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

1. What is an electrophile?
Ans. An electrophile is a chemical species that is electron-deficient and seeks to accept an electron pair from a nucleophile during a chemical reaction.
2. What is a nucleophile?
Ans. A nucleophile is a chemical species that is electron-rich and seeks to donate an electron pair to an electrophile during a chemical reaction.
3. What are activators and deactivators?
Ans. Activators and deactivators are functional groups or substituents that can influence the reactivity of a molecule towards electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions. Activators enhance the electrophilic nature of a molecule, while deactivators decrease it.
4. How does heat of hydrogenation (H.O.H) relate to electrophiles and nucleophiles?
Ans. The heat of hydrogenation (H.O.H) is a measure of the stability of a compound. It can indirectly indicate the reactivity of a compound towards electrophilic or nucleophilic reactions. Generally, more stable compounds have lower reactivity towards electrophiles and nucleophiles, while less stable compounds are more reactive.
5. What are some examples of electrophiles and nucleophiles?
Ans. Examples of electrophiles include carbocations, acyl chlorides, and carbonyl compounds. Examples of nucleophiles include amines, alcohols, and carbanions.
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