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Rowlatt Satyagraha ,Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy, Nehru Report : The Freedom Struggle | History for UPSC CSE PDF Download

ROWLATT SATYAGRAHA AND JALLIANWALA BAGH TRAGEDY

  • Rowlatt Act was passed in March 1919. It was passed for three years. The Act provided that:
  • Executive officers will have pow­ers to make arbitrary arrests.
  • It provided for trial of revolu­tionary offences by a special court.
  • The court was to meet in cam­era.
  • The court was to disregard the Indian Evidence Act.
  • No appeal against the decision of the court was permissible.
  • Provincial governments authorised to demand security from sus­pected persons, search their premises and arrest them without warrants.
  • Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy Developments were
  • Lt. Governor O’Dwyer ruled through an
  • oppressive administration in Punjab during World War I.
  • Protests all over Punjab over the Black (Rowlatt) Acts on 6 April, 1919.
  • Deportation of Amritsar lead­ers—Dr. Satyapal and Dr. Kitchlew on 9 April.
  • Firing on the public outside Hall Gate, Amritsar on 10 April.
  • Brigadier Dyer appointed Mili­tary Administrator of Amritsar on 11 April, 1919.
  • Dyer prohibited public meetings and processions on 12 April.
  • Dyer’s men fired at peaceful as­sembly at Jallianwala Bagh, killing 379 persons and wounding 1200 persons on 13 April, the day of Baisakhi.
  • Martial law imposed in the Punjab on 15 April, 1919.

NEHRU REPORT AND JINNAH’S FOURTEEN POINTS

  • After 1922, the demands of Swaraj was raised from various quar­ters. The Conservative Secretary of State for India, Birkenhead challenged the Indian leaders to produce a consti­tution.
  • At the Madras Congress (1927), a committee was constituted, with Motilal Nehru as the President, to frame a Con­stitution of India.
  • Lajpat Rai and T. B. Sapru were also its members. The Nehru Report was approved by the All-Parties Con­ference in Aug. 1928, at Lucknow.
  • Main points of the Report:
  • India was to remain within the Empire, but was to have a status like the Dominions.
  • A responsible government was to be established.
  • The fundamental rights of speech and association of citizens were to be guaranteed.
  • The House of the People was to consist of 500 members chosen on the basis of adult franchise.
  • The Upper House (or Senate) was to consist of 200 members cho­sen by the Provincial Assemblies or Councils.
  • The principle of separate elec­torate was not accepted except to a limited extent.
  • The acceptance of adult fran­chise, joint electorates with reserva­tion of seats in some areas only for a ten-year period, the responsibility to the legislature of the executive and pro­vincial autonomy were some other fea­tures.
  • The Muslim League opposed the Nehru Report. Their demands were elaborated by Jinnah in the form of an amendment at the representative con­vention of Calcutta (22 December 1928), which reviewed the Nehru Re­port adopted by the All Parties Confer­ence.
  • The Muslims should have one­third representation in the Central Leg­islature.
  • The Punjab and Bengal legisla­tures should have Muslim representa­tion on the basis of population for ten years in the event of adult suffrage not being granted.
  • Residuary powers should be vested in the Provinces and not in the Centre.

CABINET MISSION PLAN

  • Factors which led to Cabinet Mission Plan can be summed up as:
  • The Labour Government under Attlee assumed office in England re­placing Conservative Government of Churchill in July, 1945.
  • Wavell announced Labour Government’s decision to introduce early responsible government in India on 19 Sept. 1945.
  • International pressures on En­gland for early grant of independence to India.
  • The Naval Mutiny of Feb. 1946 gave an indication of the difficulties that confronted British administrators in India.
  • The depletion of Britain’s civil and military resources in India after World War II lent urgency to transfer of power to Indian hands.
  • National spirit had permeated all wings of armed forces and even the police and their loyalty to Govemment of India was always doubtful.
  • Indian elections of 1945-46 re­vealed that Muslim League dominated Muslim opinion as Congress dominated Hindu opinion.
  • A British Parliamentary Delega­tion, after visiting India during the win­ter of 1945-46, recommended to Labour Government that Indian free­dom could not be delayed.
  • Attlee explained (on 15 March 1946) the British policy towards India:
  • British Govemment aware of the rights and apprehension of Indian mi­norities.
  • Minorities not to be allowed to place veto on the advance of Majority.
  • Cabinet Mission to visit India to help India to attain freedom speedily.
  • Cabinet Mission comprising Pethick-Lawrence, Cripps and Alexander reached India on 24 March 1946.

Recommendation of Cabinet Mission

A . Rejection of Demand for Paki­stan
  • Problem of communal minori­ties could not be solved because of large per cent of non-Muslims in the pro­posed north-west & north-eastern wings of Pakistan.
  • Population of Muslim minorities in the rest of India would be 2 crores.
  • Unitary nature of British Indian administrative, economic and military set-up was an argument against parti­tion.

B. Union of India recornmended

  • British India and Indian States to have a common union to deal with Defence, Foreign Affairs and Commu­nications.
  • Indian Union to have an Execu­tive and a Legislature. Provision made for solution of communal issues.
  • Indian States to retain all sub­jects and powers not ceded to the Cen­tre.
  • Residuary powers vested in prov­inces.
  • Provinces free to form groups with separate sub-constitutions.

C. Provision for formation of Con­stituent Assembly

  • Provincial Legislative Assemblies to elect representatives for Constituent Assembly.
  • Constituent Assembly to con­clude treaty with Britain.
  • British Paramountcy over States to lapse.

D. Proposal for Interim Government

  • Interim national government of India to be formed.

Merits of Cabinet Mission Scheme

  • Constituent Assembly to be formed on democratic basis of popula­tion.
  • Communal issues to be decided by simple majority.
  • Demand for partition of India rejected.
  • British Government and non­official Europeans denied representa­tion in Constituent Assembly.
  • Constituent Assembly given wide powers to frame a constitution for free India.

Demerits

  • Interest of Muslim minority looked after, but of Sikhs ignored.
  • Formation of separate groups could trigger off separatist tendencies.
  • Provision for separate sub-con­stitutions for provinces and groups en­couraged those who wanted Pakistan.
  • Muslim League rejected the Cabi­net Mission Plan as also Constituent Assembly Plan on 29 July, 1946.

Why the Congress accepted Pakistan?

  • On June 3, 1947, Mr Jawaharlal Nehru, wh- ile recommending the pro­posal for partition to the people said, “For generations we have dreamt and struggled for a free, independent and united In- dia. The proposal to allow cer­tain parts to secede is painful for any of us to contemplate. Neverthel- ess, I am convinced that our present deci­sion is the right one.”
  • This shows that the Congress accepted Pakistan as a necessary evil.

The Indian Independence Act, 1947

  • The Act gave legal shape to 3rd June 1947 Plan. It did not provide for any new constitution for India or Paki­stan, but gave full powers to Constitu­ent Assembly of each dominion to frame its own constitution.

Provisions

  • British Indian territories to be divided into two independent domin­ions of India and Pakistan w.e.f. 15 August 1947.
  • Pakistan to include Sind, British Baluchistan, N.W.F.P., West Punjab and East Bengal (boundaries of last two provinces to be settled by Boundary Commission).
  • Free India to include the rest of the provinces of the former British In­dia.
  • British Paramountcy over Indian States withdrawn.
  • Indian States free to join India or Pakistan.
  • Each dominion to have a Gov­ernor-General.
  • Legislature of each dominion to be free to enact any laws for its own country.
  • Constituent Assembly of each dominion to function as its legislature.
  • Unless otherwise altered or omit­ted, Government of India Act, 1935 to be operative in each dominion.
  • Governor-General of each do­minion to be responsible for effective operation of Indian Independence Act.
  • Provision made for safeguarding interests of former l.C.S. officers.
  • Armed forces of British India to be divided between India and Pakistan.
  • Provision made for exercise of functions of Secretary of State and Au­ditor of Indian Home Accounts.

Significance of Indian Independence Act

  • It marked the end of British sovereignty over India.
  • Crown of England ceased to be source of authority in India.
  • Henceforth Governor-General and Governors to act as constitutional heads.
  • It marked the end of colonial era in Indian sub-continent.
The document Rowlatt Satyagraha ,Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy, Nehru Report : The Freedom Struggle | History for UPSC CSE is a part of the UPSC Course History for UPSC CSE.
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FAQs on Rowlatt Satyagraha ,Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy, Nehru Report : The Freedom Struggle - History for UPSC CSE

1. What was the significance of the Rowlatt Satyagraha during the Indian freedom struggle?
Ans. The Rowlatt Satyagraha was a peaceful protest against the Rowlatt Act of 1919, which allowed the British government to imprison individuals without trial. It marked a significant moment in the movement towards Indian independence as people across the country united against this oppressive law.
2. How did the Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy impact the Indian freedom struggle?
Ans. The Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy, where British troops opened fire on a peaceful gathering in 1919, resulted in a large number of casualties and sparked outrage across India. It led to a surge in nationalist sentiment and further strengthened the resolve of Indians to fight for independence.
3. What were the main recommendations of the Nehru Report in the context of Indian constitutional reforms?
Ans. The Nehru Report, submitted in 1928, called for dominion status for India, a federal structure with autonomy for provinces, and safeguards for minority rights. It laid the foundation for future discussions on constitutional reforms in the country.
4. What were Jinnah's Fourteen Points and how did they impact the Indian political landscape?
Ans. Jinnah's Fourteen Points were a set of demands put forth by Muhammad Ali Jinnah in 1929 to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in India. They highlighted the concerns of the Muslim community and played a significant role in shaping the communal dynamics of the freedom struggle.
5. How did the Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946 contribute to the process of Indian independence?
Ans. The Cabinet Mission Plan proposed a framework for a united India with a federal structure, which aimed to accommodate the interests of different communities. While ultimately unsuccessful, it laid the groundwork for the partition of India and the subsequent independence of the country in 1947.
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